Muscles Of Foot – 25 Previous Year NEET PG Question for Practice

INTRODUCTION :

  • The muscles acting on the foot can be classified into extrinsic muscles, those originating on the anterior or posterior aspect of the lower leg, and intrinsic muscles, originating on the dorsal (top) or plantar (base) aspects of the foot.

TYPES:

EXTRINSIC MUSCLES

  • All muscles originating on the lower leg except the popliteus muscle are attached to the bones of the foot.
  • The tibia and fibula and the interosseous membrane separate these muscles into anterior and posterior groups, in their turn subdivided into subgroups and layers. 

Anterior group

  1. Extensor group:

 

MUSCLE  ORIGIN  INSERTION  ACTION
Tibialis Anterior  Proximal half of tibia
Interosseous membrane 
near tarsometatarsal joint of 1st digit  Non-weight-bearing leg tibialis anterior flexes the foot dorsally and lift its medial edge (supination).
Weight-bearing leg it brings the leg towards the back of the foot, like in rapid walking
Extensor digitorum longus  Lateral tibial condyle
Along the fibula 
Second to fifth digits and proximally on the fifth metatarsal. Similar to the tibialis anterior 
Dorsiflexes the digits. 
Extensor hallucis longus Medially on the fibula  first digit Dorsiflexes the big toe and also acts on the ankle in the unstressed leg
Weight-bearing leg it acts similar to the tibialis anterior. 

2.  Peroneal group: 

MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION ACTION
Peroneus Longus Proximal aspect of Fibula 1st tarsometatarsal joint 

Lateral margin of plantar surface of 1st cuneiform

 Pronator

Plantor flexion

Evertor of ankle 

Acts like a bowstring that braces the transverse arch of the foot.

 Peroneus Brevis  Proximal aspect of fibula below P. Longus  Proximal part of 5th metatarsal   Pronator

Plantor flexion

Posterior group

  1. Superficial layer
MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION ACTION
Triceps Surae   

Soleus(peripheral heart)
Gastrocnemius 
 

Proximal dorsal parts of tibia & fibula
Proximal to condyle on femur
 Merges to be inserted on calcaneus as Achiles tendon  Plantar flexion

During walking it not only lifts the heel, but also flexes the knee, assisted by the plantaris.

Plantaris  Femur  Medial to Achilles’ tendon  Plantar flexion

During walking it not only lifts the heel, but also flexes the knee, assisted by the plantaris.

2. Deep layer :

MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION ACTION
Tibialis Posterior Interosseous membrane & adjoining bones

Passes deep to flexor retinaculum 

Tarsall bone  except talus  Non-weight-bearing leg, it produces plantar flexion and supination

weight-bearing leg, it proximates the heel to the calf. 

Flexor hallucis longus  Back of the fibula (i.e. on the lateral side) Extends distally down to the flexor retinaculum where it passes over to the medial side to stretch across the sole to the distal phalanx of the first digit. Plantar flex and invert the foot

Flex the great toe and helps supinate the ankle

Popliteus Lateral femoral epicondyle(intracapsular) Posterior surface of the tibia, just proximal to the soleal line Does not act on the foot

Unlocker of knee

flexor of knee


INTRINSIC MUSCLES:

  • There are three groups of muscles in the sole of foot, those of the first and last digits, and a central group:
  1. Muscles Of Big Toe:
MUSCLE ORIGINN INSERTION ACTION
Abductor hallucis Calcaneus of 1st digit 2 head insert proximal & distal to 1st metatarsal  Abductor & Weak flexor

Maintain arch of foot

Flexor hallucis brevis( sesamoid bone present in its tendon) Medial cuneiform bone 2 head insert proximal & distal to 1st metatarsal  Plantar flexor(crucial for ballet dance)
Adductor hallucis oblique head:central part of midfoot

Transverse head:metatarsophalangeal joints of digits five to three

Lateral sesamoid bone of the first digit Tensor of the plantar arches and also adducts the big toe and then might plantar flex the proximal phal

2. Muscles of the little toe:

MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION ACTION
Abductor digiti minimi calcaneus  proximal phalanx of the fifth digit Form the lateral margin of the foot

Support the arch of the foot and to plantar flex the fifth digit

flexor digiti minimi Base of the fifth metatarsal Attach to hook of hamate

Together with abductor on the first phalanx.

 Support the arch of the foot and to plantar flex the fifth digit
Opponens digiti minimi cuboid bone Fifth metatarsal bone. Support the arch of the foot and to plantar flex the fifth digit

3. Central muscle group:

MUSCLE ORIGIN INSERTION ACTION
Lumbricals(4) Medial side of the tendons of flexor digitorum longus Medial margins of the proximal phalanges Plantar flexors at the metatarsophalangeal joints
Quadratus plantae 2 slips from the lateral and medial margins of the calcaneus Lateral margin of the flexor digitorum tendon Plantar flexors at the metatarsophalangeal joints
Flexor digitorum brevis  Inferiorly on the calcaneus  Middle phalanges of digits two to four Flexes the middle phalanges
Dorsal and plantar interossei  Between the toes, the  stretch from the metatarsals Proximal phalanges of digits two to five Plantar interossei adducts

Dorsal interossei abducts

Plantar flexors at the metatarsophalangeal joints

Exam Question of

  • Sesamoid bone present in tendon of Flexor hallucis brevis 
  • Lumbricals Originates  from  tendons  of  flexor  digitorum profundus
  • Popliteus is the unlocker of knee
  • Peroneus longus is the Evertor of ankle inserted into the medial cuneiform 
  • Gastrocnemius Muscle is used in normal walk during DIstance and swing
  • Tibialis posterior muscle passes deep to the flexor retinaculum
  • Tibialis posterior is inserted into all tarsus bones except talus
  • Peroneus brevis is inserted into proximal part of 5th metatarsal
  • Gastrocnemius & plantaris acts both on knee & ankle
  • Muscles causing dorsiflexion of foot are  Extensor digitorum longus, Extensor hallucis longus & Tibialis anterior
  • Planter flaxion is brought about by Plantaris, FHL & Soleus
  • Action of tibialis anterior is that  in Non-weight-bearing leg tibialis anterior flexes the foot dorsally and lift its medial edge (supination) & in Weight-bearing leg it brings the leg towards the back of the foot, like in rapid walking
  • Tibilais  anterior causes inversion of foot
  • Soleus is k/as peripheral heart
  • Flexor digiti minimi muscle is attached to hook of hamate
  • Action of popliteus muscle unlock knee, flex knee

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    Muscles Of Foot

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