A. Purple coloration spread over the entire abdomen.
B. Greenish discoloration over Right iliac fossa.
C. Greenish discolouration of dependent parts.
D. Blood stained froth from mouth.
Ans:B. Greenish discoloration over Right iliac fossa.
Greenish dislocation of skin over right iliac fossa is the first sign seen in a decomposed body.
Stages of Decomposition
A. Fresh (1-2 days)
- This is the part of decomposition that happens almost instanly after death, when the human body starts loosing heat. The body goes through a process called Autolysis/Self-digestion, due to the actions of its own enzymes.
B. Bloated (2-6 days)
- Destruction of the soft tissues of the body is caused mainly by the action of bacterial enzymes, mostly anaerobic organisms derived from the intestines.
- The characteristic features of putrefaction are:
(i) changes in the color of the tissues
- The first external sign of putrefaction in a body lying in air is usually a greenish discoloration of the skin over the region of the cecum, which lies fairly superficially, and where the contents of the bowel are more fluid and full of bacteria.
- Internally, this is seen on the under surface of the liver, where that organ is in contact with the transverse colon.
- The color results from the conversion of hemoglobin of blood into sulphmet hemoglobin by the hydrogen sulphide formed in the large intestine and escaping into the surrounding tissues.
- The green coloration then spreads over the entire abdomen, external genitals and then patches appear successively on the chest, neck, face, arms and legs.
- The patches become dark-green and later purple and dark-blue.
- They are at first scattered, but later on join together and the whole skin of the body appears discolored.
- As a general rule, the organs show putrefactive changes in the following order.
- Larynx and trachea.
- Stomach, intestines and spleen.
- Liver, lungs.
- Kidneys, bladder.
- Prostate, uterus.
- Skin, muscle, tendon.
(ii) the evolution of gases in the tissues:
- Gas bubbles accumulate in the tissues, causing crepitant, sponge-like feeling which soon begins to distend the body.
- Discolored natural fluids and liquefied tissues are made frothy by gas.
- Due to the presence of gas in the abdomen, the diaphragm is forced upwards compressing the lungs and heart, and bloodstained froth exudes from the mouth and nostrils (postmortem purge), which can be mistaken for the bleeding following antemortem injury.
(iii) the liquefaction of tissues.
- Colliquative putrefaction begins from 5 to 10 days or more after death. The abdomen bursts and the stomach and intestines protrude.
C. Decay (5-11 days)
- Active decay- this part of decay is reconizeable by a great loss in mass(weight), this weight loss is caused by the ravinous feeding by maggots, and the leaking of the body’s decomposition fluids into the the environment around it
D. Post-Decay (10-24 days)
- Advanced Decay- this decay is marked by change in the soil surrounding the body that is, by now, leaking fluids. insect activity will start to lessen, and the surrounding plant life will start to die.
E. Dry Stage (24+ days)
- The final stage of decomposition results in the remains consisting primarily of bones, some dried skin and cartilage. There is typically no odour of decay at this point.
- Skeletonisation- this the final act of human decomposition in a temperate climate it can take two years, in a hot climate it can happen as fast as two weeks, and in a cold temperature it can take longer. all moisture in the body is lost, and the bones are exposed and easily visible.