A. G.I. tract.
D. Ear drum.
The injury shown in the picture above represents the blast injury.
- It is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from direct or indirect exposure to an explosion.
- Categorized as primary to quaternary.
- Primary injuries
- They are caused by blast overpressure waves.
- The ears are most often affected by the overpressure, followed by the lungs and the hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Pulmonary barotrauma, the most common fatal PBI, may include the following:
- Pulmonary contusion
- Systemic air embolism, which most commonly occlude blood vessels in the brain or spinal cord
- Free radical–associated injuries such as thrombosis, lipoxygenation, and DIC
ARDS may be a result of direct lung injury or of shock from other body injuries
- Acoustic barotrauma consists of the following:
- Tympanic membrane rupture (most common)
- Hemotympanum without perforation
- Ossicle fracture or dislocation may occur with very high-energy explosions.
- GI tract:Perforation is common in stomach, small intestines & caecum
- Eyes:Conjuctival hemorrhage.
- Secondary injuries
- They are caused by fragmentation and other objects propelled by the explosion.
- These injuries may affect any part of the body and sometimes result in penetrating trauma with visible bleeding.
- Tertiary injuries
- Displacement of air by the explosion creates a blast wind that can throw victims against solid objects.
- They may present as some combination of blunt and penetrating trauma, including bone fractures and coup contre-coup injuries.
- Quaternary injuries
- They are all other injuries not included in the first three classes. These include flash burns, crush injuries, etc