A. Congenital ptosis.
B. Congenital coloboma.
- It is a rare congenital anomaly in which the skin is continuous over the eyeball with absence of eyelids.
- It is classified into three types: complete, incomplete and abortive.
- Failure of eyelid separation can be associated with maldevelopment of the underlying cornea and microphthalmia. Cryptophthalmos usually occurs on both sides and occurs in association with other multiple malformations collectively referred to as Fraser syndrome.
Congenital Disorders of the eye
- Acorea(fibrous occlusion of the pupil), microphthalmia(eyes are abnormally small) and cataract syndrome
- Aniridia(absence of the iris)
- Anophthalmia(absence of one or both the eyes)
- Aphakia(absence of the lens of the eye)
- Axenfeld syndrome ( characterized by anterior segment dysgenesis and systemic abnormalities.)
- Blepharophimosis(horizontally narrow palpebral fissure)
- Buphthalmos(enlargement of the eyeball)
- Coloboma( hole in one of the structures of the eye, such as the iris, retina, choroid, or optic disc.)
- Cystic eyeball
- Cryptophthalmos( skin is continuous over the eyeball with absence of eyelids)
- Distichia(second row of eyelashes that grow out of the meibomian glands)
- Ectopia lentis(malposition of the eye’s crystalline lens from its normal location)
- Ectropion(eyelid turns outward)
- Entropion(eyelid turns inward)
- Hydrophthalmos(primary congenital glaucoma that leads to enlargement of the eye as a result of increased pressure )
- Keratoglobus(non inflammatory corneal thinning disorder characterised by generalised thinning and globular protrusion of the cornea.)
- Marcus Gunn phenomenon(rhythmic upward jerking of their upper eyelid. This condition is characterized as a synkinesis)
- Megalocornea(nonprogressive enlargement of the cornea to 13 mm or greater; in the setting of normal intraocular pressure.)
- Microphthalmia(one or both eyeballs are abnormally small)
- Microspherophakia(lens is small in diameter and spherical)
- Nance–Horan syndrome(congenital cataract leading to profound vision loss, characteristic dysmorphic features and dental anomalies)
- Nasolacrimal duct obstruction
- Norrie disease( X linked recessive leading to cataracts, leukocoria along with other developmental issues in the eye, such as shrinking of the globe and the wasting away of the iris)
- Polycoria( more than one pupillary opening in the iris)
- Primary juvenile glaucoma
- Ptosis ( drooping or falling of the upper eyelid)
- Zonular cataract and nystagmus