B. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous
C. Coats disease
D. Retinopathy of prematurity
- It is a cancer that rapidly develops from the immature cells of a retina.
- It is the most common malignant cancer of the eye in children, and it is almost exclusively found in young children.
- Almost half of children with retinoblastoma have a hereditary genetic defect associated with retinoblastoma.
- In other cases, it is caused by a congenital mutation in the chromosome 13 gene, 13q14.
- Abnormal appearance of the retina as viewed through the pupil(leukocoria, also known as amaurotic cat’s eye reflex).
- Deterioration of vision, a red and irritated eye with glaucoma, squint.
- Clinical patterns of retinoblastoma growth.
- If the tumor grows forward into the vitreous it is known as an endophytic tumor. This form of retinoblastoma often shows vitreous seeding, which causes vitreous haze and opacities. This can eventually progress to involve the anterior chamber and can cause secondary glaucoma and inflammation.
- When the tumor shows a growth pattern that extends beneath the retina (subretinal) it is described as an exophytic tumor. These tumors can cause exudative retinal detachments and may be associated with significant subretinal seeding.
Diffuse infiltrating growth
- This is a rare subtype comprising 1.5% of all retinoblastomas. It is characterized by a relatively flat infiltration of the retina by tumor cells but without a discrete tumor mass.
- Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV): congenital developmental anomaly of the eye resulting from failure of the embryological, primary vitreous and hyaloid vasculature to regress, whereby the eye is shorter, develops a cataract, and may present with whitening of the pupil.
- Coats disease: a typically unilateral disease characterised by abnormal development of blood vessels behind the retina, leading to blood vessel abnormalities in the retina and retinal detachment to mimic retinoblastoma.
- Toxocara canis: an infectious disease of the eye associated with exposure to infected puppies, which causes a retinal lesion leading to retinal detachment.
- Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP): associated with low birth weight infants who receive supplemental oxygen in the period immediately after birth, it involves damage to the retinal tissue and may lead to retinal detachment.
- Red Reflex:Whitening of red reflex
- Presents with one or multiple nodular, white or cream colored masses often associated with increased vascularization