(Condition shown : Vernal keratoconjunctivitis)
Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is an allergic eye disease that especially affects young boys. The most common symptoms are itching, photophobia, burning, and tearing.
- The most common signs are giant papillae, superficial keratitis, and conjunctival hyperaemia.
- VKC is a chronic bilateral inflammation of the conjunctiva characterized by hyperaemia, chemosis, photophobia, and filamentous and sticky mucous discharge.
- The hallmark of the disease is the presence of giant papillae (cobblestone appearance) at the upper tarsal conjunctiva (tarsal form) or at limbus (bulbar form).
The clinical management of VKC requires a swift diagnosis, correct therapy, and evaluation of the prognosis.
- The diagnosis is generally based on the signs and symptoms of the disease, but in difficult cases can be aided by conjunctival scraping, demonstrating the presence of infiltrating eosinophils.
- Therapeutic options are many, in most cases topical, and should be chosen on the basis of the severity of the disease.
- The most effective drugs, steroids, should however be carefully administered, and only for brief periods, to avoid secondary development of glaucoma.