A. High alpha fetoprotein (AFP) amount.
B. Diagnosed by Sonogram.
C. Diagnosed by MRI
D. All of the above.
Ans:D. All of the above.
The patient is suffering from Sacrococcygeal Teratoma.
- It include components derived from all three embryonic layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. These tissues are foreign to the location in which they are found.
Frequencies of the most common sites are as follows:
- Sacrococcygeal → 40%
- Ovary→ 25%
- Testicle→ 12%
- Brain→ 5%
- Other (including the neck and mediastinum)→ 18%.
- It is a congenital type of tumor known as a teratoma that develops at the base of the coccyx and is thought to be derived from the primitive streak.
- They are benign 75% of the time, malignant 12% of the time, and the remainder are considered “immature teratomas” that share benign and malignant features.
- It occurs in 1 in 30,000-70,000 live births. The female-to-male predominance is 4:1.
- Fetal ultrasound and MRI are the mainstay of antenatal diagnosis of SCT.
- MRI more accurately characterizes the intrapelvic and abdominal extent of the tumors and provides more information on compression of adjacent organs.
Tumor markers:High Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)
- SCTs are classified morphologically according to their relative extent outside and inside the body:
- Altman type I→ entirely outside, sometimes attached to the body only by a narrow stalk
- Altman type II → mostly outside
- Altman type III→ mostly inside
- Altman type IV → entirely inside; this is also known as a presacral teratoma or retrorectal teratoma