A. Down’s syndrome.
B. Turner’s syndrome.
C. Klinefelter’s syndrome.
D. Edward syndrome.
Edwards’ syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, is a serious genetic condition caused by an additional copy of chromosome 18 in some or all of the cells in the body.
A baby with Edwards’ syndrome has three copies of chromosome number 18, instead of two.
This disrupts the baby’s normal development and, in many cases, causes them to be miscarried or stillborn.
Babies with Edwards’ syndrome will have grown slowly in the womb and will have a low birthweight, along with a number of other serious medical problems. Of those that survive to birth, around half will die within two weeks and only around one in every five will live at least three months.Babies with Edwards’ syndrome can have a wide range of different problems.
Physical signs of Edwards’ syndrome include:
- a small, abnormally shaped head
- a small jaw and mouth
- long fingers that overlap, with underdeveloped thumbs and clenched fists
- low-set ears
- smooth “rocker bottom” feet (with a rounded base)
- a cleft lip and palate (a gap or split in the upper lip and/or the roof of the mouth)
- an exomphalos (where the intestines are held in a sac outside the tummy)
Babies with Edwards’ syndrome also typically have:
- heart and kidney problems
- feeding problems – leading to poor growth
- breathing problems
- Hernias in the wall of their stomach (where internal tissues push through a weakness in the muscle wall)
- bone abnormalities – such as a curved spine
- frequent infections of the lungs and urinary system
- a severe learning disability.