A. Stages of Anesthesia
B. Oropharyngeal Airway
C. Discovering Oxygen
D. Both a and b
Ans:D. Both a and b. Stages of Anesthesia and Oropharyngeal Airway.
The image shown is of Anesthesiologist:
- Arthur Ernest Guedel (June 13, 1883 – June 10, 1956) was an American anesthesiologist.
- He designed Stages of Anesthesia and oropharyngeal Airway.
Guedel’s classification is a means of assessing of depth of general anesthesia
Stages of Anaesthesia
- Stage I (Stage of Analgesia or the stage of Disorientation): from the beginning of induction of anesthesia to loss of consciousness.
- Stage II (Stage of Excitement or the stage of Delirium): from loss of consciousness to onset of automatic breathing. Eyelash reflex disappears but other reflexes remain intact and coughing, vomiting and struggling may occur; respiration can be irregular with breath-holding.
- Stage III (Stage of Surgical anesthesia): from the onset of automatic respiration to respiratory paralysis. It is divided into four planes:
“Plane I” – from the onset of automatic respiration to the cessation of eyeball movements.
- “Plane II” – from the cessation of eyeball movements to the beginning of paralysis of intercostal muscles.
- “Plane III” (Surgical Anaesthesia) from beginning to completion of intercostal muscle paralysis.
- “Plane IV” – from complete intercostal paralysis to diaphragmatic paralysis (apnoea).
- Stage IV: from the stoppage of respiration till death. Anaesthetic overdose causes medullary paralysis with respiratory arrest and vasomotor collapse. Pupils are widely dilated and muscles are relaxed.
Oropharyngeal airway (also known as an oral airway, OPA or Guedel pattern airway)
- It is a medical device called an airway adjunct used to maintain or open a patient’s airway.
- It does this by preventing the tongue from covering the epiglottis, which could prevent the person from breathing.
- When a person becomes unconscious, the muscles in their jaw relax and allow the tongue to obstruct the airway.