A. Diffuse Esophageal Spasm.
B. Esophageal Carcinoma.
C. Achalasia Cardia.
D. Esophageal Sphincter.
Ans:A. Diffuse Esophageal Spasm.
In the barium swallow:Cork screw esophagus or “rosary bead esophagus” is seen,suggestive of Diffuse esophageal spasm.
Diffuse esophageal spasm
- It is a condition characterized by uncoordinated contractions of the esophagus
- Aetiology is unknown but may be related to loss of inhibitory neurones in the distal oesophagus.
- Chest pain and dysphagia are the primary complaints, but severity and occurrence are highly variable. Regurgitation may also be a feature (but less common than in achalasia)
- “Corkscrew oesophagus” or “rosary bead oesophagus” where normal peristalsis is interrupted by many tertiary (non-propulsive) contractions occurring in the distal oesophagus.
- Manometry is the gold-standard diagnostic test.
- Drugs like nitroglycerin, hyoscine butylbromide, calcium channel blockers, hydralazine, and anti-anxiety medications.
- Acid suppression therapy, such as proton pump inhibitors.
- Botulinum toxin
- Endoscopic balloon dilation