Abortion (miscarriage)- Basics & Causes
- Abortion is the expulsion or extraction from its mother of an embryo or fetus at less than 20 weeks, or weighing 500 g or less when it is not capable of independent survival.
- Period of viability depends on the medical facilities of a country and hence varies.
- As per WHO-22 weeks.
- As per ACOG-24 weeks.
- In India: beyond 28 weeks, Fetus is l00% viable.
- Recurrent abortion: RPL recurrent pregnancy loss. It is defined as a sequence of three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions before 20 weeks. American society for reproductive medicine (2013) defines RPL as 2 or more failed pregnancies confirmed by USG or histologically.
- 75% of abortions occur before the 16th week and of those, about 75% occur before the 8th week of pregnancy.
Weight of fetus
- At 20 weeks, the weight of fetus-300 gm
- Between 22-23 weeks-500 gm.
- At 24 weeks, the weight of fetus-630 gms.
- At 28 weeks, the weight of fetus-1 kg
- 500 g of fetal development is attained approximately 22 weeks (154 days) of gestation.
- Abortion can be broadly classified into Spontaneous & Induced abortion.
- Spontaneous abortion can be divided into Isolated and Recurrent abortions.
- Recurrent Abortions/ isolated abortion is further divided into:-
- Threatened abortion
- Inevitable abortion
- Complete abortion
- Incomplete abortion
- Missed abortion
- Septic abortion ( less common)
- Induced abortion can be legal abortion (MTP) and illegal abortion.
Causes of abortion
|Maternal factors||Maternal infections||
|Maternal medical disorders||
|Exposure to radiation||
|Uterine factors like||
|Weight of mother||
Mnemonic To Remember Maternal Causes Of Abortion
TIMED ‘O’ – T = Trauma (Leads to second-trimester loss)
I2 = Infections/immunological causes
M = Maternal medical diseases
E2 = Environmental factors/endocrine problem
D = Developmental/anatomical problems
O = Obesity in mother
- Abortion is the expulsion or extraction of a fetus
- As per WHO-22 weeks, As per ACOG-24 weeks, In India: beyond 28 weeks.
- At 20 weeks, the weight of fetus-300 gm, between 22-23 weeks-500 gm.
- At 24 weeks, the weight of fetus-630 gms, At 28 weeks, the weight of fetus-1 kg.
- M/C cause is Chromosomal abnormalities.
- Smoking & alcohol can cause abortion.
- Increased paternal age is associated with increased abortion.
- Mullerian anomalies (M/C associated with abortions is the septate uterus).
- Trauma can lead to a second-trimester loss.
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