Disaster Management

Disaster Management


DEFINITION:

  • A disaster can be defined as any occurrence that cause damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services on a scale, sufficient to warrant an extraordinary response from outside the affected community or area.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT PHASES:

  • PREPAREDNESS:
    • Activity prior to disaster
      • Preparedness plan
      • Emergency training
      • Warning systems
  • RESPONSE:
    • Activity during disaster
      • Public warning systems
      • Emergency operation
      • Search & rescue
  • RECOVERY:
    • Activity following disaster
      • Temporary housing
      • Claim processing & grants
      • Long term medical care & counselling
  • MITIGATION:
    • Activity that reduces the effects of disaster
      • Building codes and zoning
      • Vulnerability analysis
      • Public education

TYPES OF DISASTER:

  • Natural Disasters:
    • Meteorological
    • Topographical
    • Environmental
  • Man-made Disasters :
    • Technological
    • Industrial accidents
    • Security related

 FACTOR AFFECTING DISASTER:

  • HOST FACTOR:
    • Age
    • Immunization status
    • Degree of mobility
    • Emotional stability
  • Environmental factors:
    • Physical Factors
    • Chemical Factors
    • Biological Factors
    • Social Factors
    • Psychological Factors

 CHARACTERISTIC OF DISASTER:

  • Predictability
  • Controllability
  • Speed of onset
  • Length of forewarning
  • Duration of impact
  • Scope and intensity of impact

PHASES OF DISASTER:

Pre-impact phase

Impact phase 

Post-impact phase

PRINCIPLES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT:

  • Disaster management is the responsibility of all spheres of government
  • Disaster management should use resources that exist for a day-to-day purpose.
  • Organizations should function as an extension of their core business
  • Individuals are responsible for their own safety.
  • Disaster management planning should focus on large-scale events.
  • DM planning should recognize the difference between incidents and disasters. 
  • DM planning must take account of the type of physical environment and the structure of the population. 
  • DM arrangements must recognise the involvement and potential role of non- government agencies.

PHASES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT:

  • Disaster Preparedness:
    • Evaluation from past experiences about risk 
    •  Location of disaster prone areas 
    •  Organization of communication, information and warning system 
    •  Ensuring co-ordination and response mechanisms 
    • Development of public education programme 
    •  Co-ordination with media 
    •  National & international relations 
    •  Keeping stock of foods, drug and other essential commodities. 
  • Disaster impact
  • Disaster Response
    • Epidemiologic surveillance and disease control 
    •  Vaccination 
    •  Nutrition
  • Rehabilitation:
    • Water supply 
    •  Food safety 
    •  Basic sanitation and personal hygiene 
    •  Vector control 
  • Disaster Mitigation:
    • This involves lessening the likely effects of emergencies. 
    •  These include depending upon the disaster, protection of vulnerable population and structure

DISASTER-EFFECTS :

  • Deaths
  • Disability
  • Increase in communicable disease
  • Psychological problems
  • Food shortage
  • Socioeconomic losses
  • Shortage of drugs and medical supplies.
  • Environmental disruption

DISASTER RECOVERY

  • Successful Recovery Preparation
  • Be vigilant in Health teaching
  • Psychological support
  • Referrals to hospital as needed
  • Remain alert for environmental health
  • Nurse must be attentive to the danger

Vaccines recommended in disasters:

  • Following vaccines are recommended 
    • Children < 10 years :- DPT, inactivated polio (IPV), H.influenzae type b (Hib), hepatitis B, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), varicella vaccine, influenza, hepatitis A and rotavirus.
    • Children and adolescents (11-18 years):- Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV), Influenza.
    • Adults (>18 years):- Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), and influenza.
  • Vaccination against typhoid and cholera is not recommended.

The 4 triage categories (with corresponding color codes), in precedence, are:

  • Red/ Immediate: The casualty requires immediate medical attention and will not survive if not seen soon. Any compromise to the casualty’s respiration, hemorrhage control, or shock control could be fatal.
  • Yellow/Delayed: The casualty requires medical attention within 6 hours. Injuries are potentially life-threatening, but can wait until the immediate casualties are stabilized and evacuated.
  • Green/ Minimal: “Walking wounded,” the casualty requires medical attention when all higher priority patients have been evacuated, and may not require stabilization or monitoring.
  • Black/ Expectant: The casualty is expected not to reach higher medical support alive without compromising the treatment of higher priority patients. Care should not be abandoned, spare any remaining time and resources after Immediate and Delayed patients have been treated.

Nodal Agencies for Disaster Management :

  • Floods : Ministry of Water Resources, CWC
  • Cyclones : Indian Meteorological Department
  • Earthquakes : Indian Meteorological Department
  • Epidemics : Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
  • Avian Flu: Ministry of Health, Ministry of Environment,
  • Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry
  • Chemical Disasters : Ministry of Environment and Forests 
  • Industrial Disasters : Ministry of Labour 
  • Rail Accidents : Ministry of Railways 
  • Air Accidents : Ministry of Civil Aviation 
  •  Fire : Ministry of Home Affairs 
  •  Nuclear Incidents : Department of Atomic Energy 
  •  Mine Disasters : Department of Mines

New Directions for Disaster Management in India :

  • A National Disaster Mitigation Fund will be administerd by NDMA. States and districts will administer mitigation funds.
  • A National Disaster Response Fund will be administerd by NDMA through the National Executive Committee. States and Districts will administer state Disaster Response Fund and Disaster Response Fund respectively.
  • 8 Battalions of National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) are being trained and deployed with CSSR and MFR equipments and tools in eight strategic locations.
  • A National Disaster Management Policy and National Disaster Response Plan will also be drawn up.

Exam Important

  • Fundamental aspects of disaster management include disaster mitigation, disaster preparedness, and disaster response.
  • Vaccines recommended in disasters includes Influenza, Measles & Tetanus
  • Hydrological disaster is the Natural disaster causing maximum deaths
  • Control room  is the nodal centre for disaster management
  • Epidemics after disaster are caused by Leptospirosis, Rickettsiosis, Acute respiratory infection
  • Black colour code is used in four colour code system of triage management in disaster for Dead patients
  • In triage system for disaster management, Red  color codes denote ‘high priority treatment’ and ‘transfer 
  • In disaster situation, 4 colour codes are used for triage
  • Residual chlorine level after disaster like flood  0.7 mg/litre
  • Floods, Tornedo, Lightening strike are all Natural disasters
  • Rehabilitation, Reconstruction & Response are seen in recovery phase after disaster
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