ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT)

ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT)

Q. 1

The only definite contraindication to ECT is:

 A Brain tumour
 B Glaucoma
 C Aortic aneurysm
 D Myocardial disease 
Q. 1

The only definite contraindication to ECT is:

 A Brain tumour
 B Glaucoma
 C Aortic aneurysm
 D Myocardial disease 
Ans. A

Explanation:

Brain tumour


Q. 2

ECT is contraindicated in:

 A Intracranial SOL
 B Pregnancy
 C Cardiac disease
 D Psychosis
Ans. A

Explanation:

Intracranial SOL 


Q. 3

Which of the following is NOT true about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)?

 A

Mainly used for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

 B

No absolute contraindications to the use of ECT.

 C

Should not be used in pregnancy.

 D

Pheochromocytoma is a relative contraindication.

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans:C-Should not be used in pregnancy.

Between 80% and 90% of all ECT treatments are performed for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

There are no absolute contraindications to the use of ECT. With appropriate preparation, ECT can be used effectively and safely in both pregnant and elderly patients. Pheochromocytoma is a relative contraindication for ECT.


Q. 4

Indications for ECT are :

 A

Paranoid schizophrenia

 B

Depression with suicidal tendency

 C

Neurotic depression

 D

All

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans:B-Depression with suicidal tendency

Usually indicated in the following conditions for refractory cases, life-threatening symptoms, or if medication is contraindicated (e.g., pregnancy):

  • Depression (most common)
  • Schizoaffective disorder
  • Schizophrenia with catatonia
  • Bipolar mood disorder (e.g., manic episodes)
  • Highly suicidal or pregnant depressed patients (not usually first-line)
  • Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

ECT is the most effective treatment for severe major depressive disorder!


Q. 5

ECT is indicated in

 A

Neurotic Depression

 B

Auditory hallucination

 C

Schizophrenia

 D

Delusional Depression

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. Delusional Depression


Q. 6

ECT is useful in

 A

Mania (Acute)

 B

Chronic Schizophrenia

 C

Acute Depression

 D

Panic Disorder

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans:C-Acute depression

Usually indicated in the following conditions for refractory cases, life-threatening symptoms, or if medication is contraindicated (e.g., pregnancy):

  • Depression (most common)
  • Schizoaffective disorder
  • Schizophrenia with catatonia
  • Bipolar mood disorder (e.g., manic episodes)
  • Highly suicidal or pregnant depressed patients (not usually first-line)
  • Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

ECT is the most effective treatment for severe major depressive disorder!


Q. 7

ECT is not useful in treatment of

 A

Chronic Schizophrenia

 B

Catatonic Schizophrenia

 C

Endogenous depression

 D

Acute psychosis

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans:A-Chronic schizophrenia

Usually indicated in the following conditions for refractory cases, life-threatening symptoms, or if medication is contraindicated (e.g., pregnancy):

  • Depression (most common)
  • Schizoaffective disorder
  • Schizophrenia with catatonia
  • Bipolar mood disorder (e.g., manic episodes)
  • Highly suicidal or pregnant depressed patients (not usually first-line)
  • Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

ECT is the most effective treatment for severe major depressive disorder!

ECT is traditionally used more often to treat depression or bipolar disorder, however, than schizophrenia. It is thought to be more effective for treating psychosis when mood symptoms are also present

Q. 8 ECT in depressive phase ofMDP is useful because it:

 A

Produces recurrence

 B

Reduces recurrence

 C

Shortens duration

 D

Increases drug effects

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. Shortens durations


Q. 9

ECT is most useful in:

 A

Mania

 B

Depression

 C

OCD

 D

Schizophrenia

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. Depression


Q. 10

Indications of ECT is /are :

 A

Psychotic depression

 B

Catatonic schizophrenia

 C

Cyclothymia

 D

A & B

Ans. D

Explanation:

A, B i.e. Psychotic depression, Catatonic schizophrenia


Q. 11

Absolute contraindication to ECT is

 A

Glucoma

 B

Brain Tumor

 C

Aortic Aneurism

 D

MI

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. Brain tumor


Q. 12

ECT is absolutely contraindicated in

 A

Pregnancy

 B

Very ill patient

 C

Raised Intracranial Tension

 D

Severe heart disease

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. Raised Intracranial tension


Q. 13

ECT causes

 A

Anterograde amnesia

 B

Retrograde amnesia

 C

Both

 D

None

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans:C i.e. Both

ECT is reported to cause anterograde amnesia (an inability to form new memories), but this is usually restricted to the period immediately following the ECT.

On the other hand, retrograde amnesia (loss of remote memories) has been argued to be both significant and permanent 


Q. 14

Most common complication of ECT is

 A

Antegrade Amnesia

 B

Retrograde Amnesia

 C

Physociasis

 D

Depression

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. Retrograde amnesia


Q. 15

Memory disturbance of ECT recovers in

 A

Few days to few weeks

 B

Few weeks to few months

 C

Few months to few year

 D

Permanent

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. Few weeks to few months 


Q. 16

What is contraindication for ECT ‑

 A

Arrythmia

 B

Epilepsy

 C

HIV

 D

Cerebral aneurysm

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d’ i.e., Cerebral aneurysm

Contraindications of ECT

  • Absolute : – Increased intracranial tension.cerebrovascular response to ECT include marked increased in cerebral blood flow and blood flow velocity. Cerebral oxygen consumption increases as well. The rapid increase in systemic blood pressure may transiently overwhelm cerebral autoregulation and may result in increased in intracranial pressure. Therefore, the use of ECT is prohibited in patients with known space occupying lesion (brain tumor) or head injury, cerebral (intracranial) aneurysm.
  • Relative : – Recent myocardial infarction, severe hypertension, cerebrovascular accident, severe pulmonary disease, Retinal detachment, Pheochromocytoma.

Q. 17 ECT is contraindicated in –

 A Very ill patients

 B

Raised ICP

 C

Heart disease

 D

Pregnancy

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans:B- Raised ICP

  • No absolute contraindications. Relative contraindications include:
    • Elevated intracranial pressure and space-occupying lesions in the brain
    • Recent myocardial infarction (within the last 3 months)
    • Severe arterial hypertension
    • Narcotic intolerance
    • Acute glaucoma
    • Changes in the cerebral arteries, e.g., aneurysm, angioma

Pregnancy and pacemakers are not a contraindication for ECT.


Q. 18

Indications for ECT are all except ‑

 A

Severe depression with suicidal risk

 B

Catatonic schizophrenia

 C

Severe psychosis

 D

Severe manic attack

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans:D-Severe manic attack

Indications of ECT

  • Severe depression with suicial risk or with psychotic features or with stupor.
  • Some types of schizophrenia (catatonic or paranoid)
  • Schizophrenic or depressive stupor
  • Severe catatonia with stupor
  • Severe psychoses (schizophrenia or mania) with risk of suicide or homicide or physical assault.


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