HERNIA

HERNIA


                                                             HERNIA

  • Hernia is defined as an abnormal protusion of an organ or tissue/ viscus through a defect in its surrounding walls.
  • 75%  is abdominal wall involved- groin hernias
  • Inguinal hernia is the MC hernia.
  • MC hernia in young age is indirect inguinal hernia.

 

ETIOLOGY-

  • Weakness in the wall
  • Lifting heavy weight
  • Chronic constipation
  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy
  • Ascites
  • Congenital or familial- collage disorder (Prune- Belly syndrome)
  • Surgery
  • Increase intra abdominal pressure

 

COMPONENTS OF HERNIA

  1. Sac-

i) Neck- at the defect

ii) Body- widen part

iii) Fundus- apex

iv) Hernial components- fluid, omentum, loop of intestine, bladder, ovaries.

 

CLASSIFICATION-

I) According to clinical type-

i) Reducible

ii) Irreducible

iii) Obstructed

iv) Incarcerated- blocked by feces

v) Strangulated

 

II) According to presence

i) External

ii) Internal

 

III) According to occurrence

i) Acquired- direct inguinal hernia

ii) Congenital- indirect inguinal hernia

 

IV) According to contents-

i) Omentocele- omentum

ii) Enterocele- intestine

iii) Cytocele- urinary bladder

iv) Littre’s hernia- meckel’s diverticulum

v) Maydl’e hernia

vi) Sliding hernia

vii) Richter’s hernia- part of bowel wall

 

V) Based on site-

i) Inguinal

ii) Femoral

iii) Obturator

iv) Diaphragmatic

v) Lumbar

vi) Spigelian

vii) Umblical

viii) Epigastric

 


CLINICAL FEATURES-

  • Presence of lump
  • Colicky abdominal pain
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal distension
  • Constipation
  • Chronic bronchitis
  • Benign enlargement

Exam Important

  • Hernia is defined as an abnormal protusion of an organ or tissue/ viscus through a defect in its surrounding walls.
  • 75%  is abdominal wall involved- groin hernias
  • Inguinal hernia is the MC hernia.
  • MC hernia in young age is indirect inguinal hernia.
According to contents-

i) Omentocele- omentum

ii) Enterocele- intestine

iii) Cytocele- urinary bladder

iv) Littre’s hernia- meckel’s diverticulum

v) Maydl’e hernia

vi) Sliding hernia

vii) Richter’s hernia- part of bowel wall

 

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