ACUTE INFLAMMATION- Vascular events

ACUTE INFLAMMATION- Vascular events


INFLAMMATION

Four cardinal signs of inflammation by Celsus-

  1. Rubor (redness)
  2. Tumour (swelling)
  3. Calor (heat)
  4. Dolor (pain)
  • Fifth sign is function laesa (loss of function) by Virchow.

ACUTE INFLAMMATION-

  • It is of short duration & responds as early body reaction.

Divided into 2 major components-

  1. Vascular events
  2. Cellular events

Vascular events- includes 2 changes

  1. Vasodilation
  2. Increased vascular permeability

a) Vasodilation

LEWIS TRIPLE RESPONSE

  1. Red line- capillary vasodilation
  2. Flare- bright reddish appearance (arteriole dilation)
  3. Wheal- exudation swelling

b) Increased vascular permeability-

  • The characteristics inflammatory oedema is due to increase vascular permeability of microcirculate & is exudates in nature.

Pattern of increased vascular permeability-

Exam Important

Four cardinal signs of inflammation by Celsus-

  1. Rubor (redness)
  2. Tumour (swelling)
  3. Calor (heat)
  4. Dolor (pain)
  • Fifth sign is function laesa (loss of function) by Virchow.

Vascular events- includes 2 changes

  1. Vasodilation
  2. Increased vascular permeability
  • Transient vasoconstriction→ vasodilation → elevation of local hydrostatic pressure→ increase vascular permeability→ slowing or stasis → leucocyte migration.

LEWIS TRIPLE RESPONSE

  1. Red line- capillary vasodilation
  2. Flare- bright reddish appearance (arteriole dilation)
  3. Wheal- exudation swelling

Mechanism of increased vascular permeability-

  1. Endothelial cell contraction
  2. Contraction or Mild endothelial injury
  3. Direct endothelial cell injury
  4. Leucocyte mediated endothelial injury
  5. Neovascularisation
  • Increased vascular permeability mediated by  histamine, bradykinin, IL-1 , TNF- α.
  • Immediate transient response types takes place in venules.
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