ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)


ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)

  • Common neuropsychiatric disorder of childhood.
  • Serious medlcal illness.

Classification: 

  • DSM-5 – ADHD.
  • ICD – 10 – Corresponds to hyperkinetic disorder.

Signs & symptoms:

Core symptoms:

Inattention – 

  • Difficulty in giving close attention to detail.
  • Frequent mlstakes in school work.
  • Distractible child.
  • Easy to lose interest.

Hyperactivity & impulsivity:

  • Excessively talkative & disturbs other students.
  • Difficulty in waiting for his turn.

Other symptoms:

Neurological examination:

Soft neurological signs – 

  • Difficulty in copying age appropriate figures.
  • Difficulty in performing rapid alternating movements.
  • Difficulty in right-left discrimination.
Types:

Depending on symptoms –

  • Combined presentation.
  • Predominantly inattentive presentation.
  • Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation.
Course:
  • Remission before puberty & early adulthood – 50 %.
  • Partial remission – Risk of developing substance use disorders (particularly alcoholism), antisocial personality disorder & mood disorders.
Treatment:
  • Pharmacological treatment – Mainstay.
1. Stimulant medications: 
  • CNS stimulants.
    • Methylphenidate – DOC.
    • Dexmethylphenidate (containing only the d-enantiomer) – New drug.

2. Nonstimulant medications:

  • Used for ineffective stimulant therapy.

Drugs used: 

  • Atomoxetine (norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), clonidine, guanfacine, venlafaxine and bupropion.
Psychological treatment:
  • Psychosocial interventions (social skill training, psychoeducation for parents, behavioral therapy & cognitive behavioral therapy).

Exam Important

  • ADHD is a serious medlcal illness.
  • Core symptoms of ADHD includes inattention (distractible child), hyperactivity & impulsivity, excessively talkative, disturbs other students with soft neurological signs.
  • Soft neurological signs include difficulty in copying age appropriate figures, difficulty in performing rapid alternating movements & difficulty in right-left discrimination.
  • About 50% patients attain remission before puberty & early adulthood.
  • Patients attaining partial remission are at the risk of developing substance use disorders (particularly alcoholism), antisocial personality disorder & mood disorders.
  • Methylphenidate, CNS stimulant is DOC for ADHD.
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)

Module Below Start Quiz

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this:
Malcare WordPress Security