Foramens of skull

Foramens of skull


SKULL:

The human skull has numerous holes (foramina) through which cranial nerves, arteries, veins and other structures pass.

  • Nasopalatine nerve
  • Rami nasales posteriores superiores (V2)
Bone Cranial fossa Foramina Vessels Nerves
Frontal     Supraorbital foramen
  • Supraorbital artery, supraorbital vein
  • Supraorbital nerve
Frontal Anterior cranial fossa     Foramen cecum
  • Emissary veins to superior sagittal sinus from the upper part of the nose
 
Ethmoid Anterior cranial fossa (osama)     Foramina of cribriform plate
  • Olfactory nerve bundles (I)
Ethmoid Anterior cranial fossa     Anterior ethmoidal foramen
  • Anterior ethmoidal artery
  • Anterior ethmoidal vein
  • Anterior ethmoidal nerve
Ethmoid Anterior cranial fossa     Posterior ethmoidal foramen
  • Posterior ethmoidal artery
  • Posterior ethmoidal vein
  • Posterior ethmoidal nerve
Sphenoid     Optic canal(lesser wing of sphenoid)
  • Ophthalmic artery
  • Optic nerve (II)
Sphenoid Middle cranial fossa     Superior orbital fissure(greater & lesser               wing of sphenoid)
  • Superior ophthalmic vein
  • Oculomotor nerve (III)
  • Trochlear nerve (IV)
  • Lacrimal, frontal and nasociliary branches of ophthalmic nerve (V1)
  • Abducent nerve (VI)
Sphenoid Middle cranial fossa     Foramen rotundum
  • Maxillary nerve (V2)
Maxilla     Incisive foramen/incisive canal
  • Terminal branch of palatine descendens artery
  • Terminal part of nasopalatine nerve (V2)
Palatine     Greater palatine foramen
  • Greater palatine artery
  • Greater palatine vein
  • Greater palatine nerve
Palatine and sphenoid     Foramen sphenopalatinum
  • Sphenopalatina artery
  • Sphenopalatina vein
Palatine and maxilla     Lesser palatine foramina
  • Lesser palatine artery
  • Lesser palatine vein
  • Lesser palatine nerve, greater palatine nerve
Sphenoid and maxilla    Inferior orbital fissure
  • Inferior ophthalmic veins
  • Infraorbital artery
  • Infraorbital vein, tributary of pterygoid plexus
  • Zygomatic nerve and infraorbital nerve of maxillary nerve (V2)
  • Orbital branches of pterygopalatine ganglion
Maxilla     Infraorbital foramen
  • Infraorbital artery
  • Infraorbital vein, tributary of pterygoid plexus
  • Infraorbital nerve
Sphenoid Middle cranial fossa     Foramen ovale
  • Accessory meningeal artery
  • emissary vein connecting cavernous sinus with pterygoid plexus
  • Mandibular nerve (V3)
  • Lesser petrosal nerve (occasionally)
Sphenoid Middle cranial fossa     Foramen spinosum
  • Middle meningeal artery & vein
  • Emissary vein
  • Nerve spinosus (Meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve )
Sphenoid Middle cranial fossa     Foramen lacerum
  • Artery of pterygoid canal
  • Meningeal branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
  • Occipital artery & emissary vein
  • Nerve of pterygoid canal through its anterior wall.
Temporal Posterior cranial fossa     Internal auditory (acoustic) meatus
  • Labyrinthine artery
  • Facial nerve (VII),
  • vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
  • Nervus intermedius of Wrisberg
Temporal Posterior cranial fossa     Jugular foramen
  • Internal jugular vein
  • inferior petrosal sinus, sigmoid sinus
  • Occipital artery
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
  • vagus nerve (X)
  • accessory nerve (XI)
Occipital Posterior cranial fossa     Hypoglossal canal (Anterior condylar canal)
  • Meningeal branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
  • Hypoglossal nerve (XII)
Occipital Posterior cranial fossa     Foramen magnum
  • Anterior and posterior spinal arteries
  • vertebral arteries
  • Lowest part of medulla oblongata
  • three meninges (dura, arachnoid & piamater)
  • ascending spinal fibers of accessory nerve (XI)
Temporal Posterior cranial fossa     Stylomastoid foramen
  • Stylomastoid artery
  • Facial nerve (VII)

                                

Exam Question

  • Superior orbital fissure is formed by Greater wing of sphenoid and lesser wing of sphenoid.
  • Optic canal is a part of lesser wing of  sphenoid.
  • Vertical crest in fundus of the internal carotid artery os known as Bill’s bar.
  • Gland derived from foramen caecum is Thyroid.
  • Foramen transversarium transmit Vertebral artery.

STRUCTURES PASSING THROIGH FORAMINA

FORAMEN MAGNUM

  • Ant. Part: Apical ligament of dens, membrane tectoria, vertical band of cruciate ligament.
  • Post. Part: Lowest part of medulla oblongata, 3 meninges (dura, arachnoid & pia mater)
  • Subarachnoid space: spinal fibers of accessory nerve (XI), vertebral artery, Lowest part of medulla oblongata

FORAMEN OVALE

  • Mandibular nerce
  • Accessory meningeal artery [MALE]
  • Lesser petrosal nerve
  • Emissary vein

FORAMEN SPINOSUM

  • Middle meningeal artery
  • Emissary vein  [MEN]
  • Nerve spinosus

FORAMEN LACERUM

  • Meningeal branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
  • Nerve of pterygoid canal through its anterior wall.

FORAMEN ROTUNDUM

  • Maxillary nerve (V2)

STYLOMASTOID FORAMEN

  • Facial nerve (VII)

JUGULAR FORAMEN

  • Ant. Part:  Inferior petrosal sinus
  • Middle part: Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI)
  • Posterior part: Internal jugular vein,  sigmoid sinus, Occipital artery

GREATER PALATINE FORAMEN

  • Greater palatine artery
  • Greater palatine vein
  • Anterior palatine nerves

LESSER PALATINE FORAMEN

  • Lesser palatine nerve, greater palatine nerve

INCISIVE FORAMEN

  • Terminal part of nasopalatine nerve (V2)
  • Greater palatine vessels

MASTOID FORAMEN

  • Meningeal branch of occipital artery, emissary vein

SUPRAORBITAL FORAMEN

  • Supraorbital artery & nerve, frontal diploic vein

INFRAORBITAL FORAMEN

  • Infraorbital nerve & vessels

MENTAL FORAMEN

  • Mental Nerves and Vessels 

FORAMEN OF WINSLOW

  • IVC 

FORAMEN CECUM

  • Emissary veins to superior sagittal sinus from the upper part of the nose

FORAMEN OF VESALIUS (Emissary sphenoidal foramen)

  • Emissary vein connecting cavernous sinus with pterygoid venous plexus
 

STRUCTURES PASSING THROIGH FORAMINA OF SKULL

CAROTID CANAL

  • Internal carotid artery with sympathetic plexus around it
  • Emissary vein (connecting cavernous sinus with IJV)

PTERYGOID CANAL

  • Vidian nerve
  • Vidian artery

HYPOGLOSAL CANAL (Anterior condylar canal)

  • Hypoglossal nerve (XII)
  • Meningeal branch of ascending pharyngeal artery

POSTERIOR CONDYLAR CANAL

  • Emissary vein (connecting sigmoid sinus with suboccipital vein)

MASTOID CANALICULUS

  • Auricular branch of vagus nerve (entry) [Alderman’s nerve or Arnold’s nerve]

TYMPANOMASTOID FISSURE

  • Auricular branch of vagus nerve (exit)

TYMPANIC CANALICULUS

  • Tympanic branch of Glossopharyngeal nerve (Jacobson nerve)

OPTIC CANAL (Foramen)

  • Ophthalmic artery
  • Optic nerve (II)

SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE

  • Divided into 3 parts by common tendinous ring of Zinn:

Middle part- Upper & lower division of oculomotor nerve, nasociliary nerve, Abducent nerve

Lateral part- Trochlear nerve, frontal nerve & Lacrimal nerve, Superior ophthalmic vein

Medial part: Inferior ophthalmic vein, sympathetic nerves around ICA

INFERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE

  • Zygomatic nerve and infraorbital nerve of maxillary nerve (V2)

ANTERIOR ETHMOIDAL CANAL

  • Anterior ethmoidal nerve & vessels

POSTERIOR ETHMOIDAL CANAL

  • Posterior  ethmoidal nerve & vessels

INTERNAL AUDITORY (Acoustic) MEATUS

  • Facial nerve (VII), vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
  • Nervus  intermedius of Wrisberg
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Foramens of skull

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