MAXILLARY (V2): TRIGEMINAL NERVE
- Pure SENSORY nerve.
- It begins at the middle of the trigeminal ganglion as a flattened plexiform band, and, passing horizontally forward.
- It leaves the skull through the foramen rotundum, where it becomes more cylindrical in form, and firmer in texture.
- It then crosses the pterygopalatine fossa, inclines lateralward on the back of the maxilla, and enters the orbit through the inferior orbital fissure.
- It then runs forward on the floor of the orbit, at first in the infraorbital groove and then in the infraorbital canal remaining outside the periosteum of the orbit.
- It then emerges on the face through the infraorbital foramen and terminates by dividing into palpebral, lateral nasal and labial branches.
- The nerve is accompanied by the infraorbital branch of (the third part of) the maxillary artery and the accompanying vein.
- Its branches may be divided into four groups.
- Depending upon where they branch off: in the cranium, in the pterygopalatine fossa, in the infraorbital canal, or on the face.
In the cranium
- Middle meningeal nerve in the meninges
From the pterygopalatine fossa
- Zygomatic nerve (zygomaticotemporal nerve, zygomaticofacial nerve), through the inferior orbital fissure
- Nasopalatine nerve, through the sphenopalatine foramen
- Posterior superior alveolar nerve
- Greater and lesser palatine nerves
- Pharyngeal nerve( nasopharynx)
In the infraorbital canal
- Middle superior alveolar nerve
- Anterior superior alveolar nerve
- Infraorbital nerve
On the face
- Inferior palpebral nerve
- Superior labial nerve
- The Maxillary nerve gives cutaneous branches to the face.
- It also carries parasympathetic preganglionic fibers (sphenopalatine) and postganglionic fibers (zygomatic, greater and lesser petrosal and nasopalatine) to and from the pterigopalatine ganglion.
- Maxillary nerve with mandibular nerve supplies Middle craninal fossa
- Maxillary nerve leaves the skull through the foramen rotundum
- Maxillary nerve lies in pterygopalatine fossa
- Maxillary nerve supplies nasopharynx
- Middle superior alveolar nerve is the branch of infraorbital branch of maxillary nerve
- Infraorbital nerve is the branch of maxillary nerve that lies in infraorbital canal
- Maxillary nerve with mandibular nerve supplies Middle cranial fossa
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