Metabolism of Triacylglycerol

Metabolism of Triacylglycerol


METABOLISM OF TRIACYLGLYCEROL

  • Triacylglycerol contains one molecule of glycerol and 3 molecules of fatty acid.
  • Occurs in liver, adipose tissue, intestinal mucosal cells.
  • Organelle- endoplasmic reticulum.

3 steps-

  1. Fatty acid to acyl CoA by Acyl CoA synthase (thiokinase)
  2. Glycerol to glycerol-3-phosphate (formed from glucose-3- phosphate dehydrogenase in adipose tissue) by glucose kinase.
  3. Phosphatidate undergoes hydrolytic dephosphorylation which is esterified to form triacylglycerol.
  • In adipose tissues- insulin enhances triacylglycerol synthesis.
  • In Diabetes, glycerol-3-phosphate is hampered leading to decrease triglyceride synthesis.
  • Triglyceride is the major lipid for adipose tissues.

Triacylglycerol hydrolysis (lipolysis)-

  • Triacylglycerol (stored fat) is degraded.
  • Enzyme- hormone sensitive lipase.
  • Lipolysis refers to hydrolysis of triacylglycerol in adipose tissues.

Regulation of lipolysis-

  1. Hormone sensitive lipase activated by-
  2. Epinephrine
  3. Catecholamines
  4. Thyroid hormones
  5. Growth hormone
  6. ACTH
  7. Glucocorticoids

Hormone sensitive lipase inactivated by-

  1. Insulin
  2. Prostaglandin

Exam Important

  • Triacylglycerol contains one molecule of glycerol and 3 molecules of fatty acid.
  • Occurs in liver, adipose tissue, intestinal mucosal cells.
  • Organelle- endoplasmic reticulum.

3 steps-

  1. Fatty acid to acyl CoA by Acyl CoA synthase (thiokinase)
  2. Glycerol to glycerol-3-phosphate (formed from glucose-3- phosphate dehydrogenase in adipose tissue) by glucose kinase.
  3. Phosphatidate undergoes hydrolytic dephosphorylation which is esterified to form triacylglycerol.
  • In adipose tissues- insulin enhances triacylglycerol synthesis.
  • In Diabetes, glycerol-3-phosphate is hampered leading to decrease triglyceride synthesis.
  • Triglyceride is the major lipid for adipose tissues.
  • Triacylglycerol hydrolysis (lipolysis)-
  • Triacylglycerol (stored fat) is degraded.
  • Enzyme- hormone sensitive lipase.
  • Lipolysis refers to hydrolysis of triacylglycerol in adipose tissues.

Regulation of lipolysis-

Hormone sensitive lipase activated by-

  1. Epinephrine
  2. Catecholamines
  3. Thyroid hormones
  4. Growth hormone
  5. ACTH
  6. Glucocorticoids

Hormone sensitive lipase inactivated by-

  1. Insulin
  2. Prostaglandin
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