Nucleotides

Nucleotides


NUCLEOTIDES 

  • Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides joined by 3’-5’ phosphodiester bond.
  • There are two types of nucleic acid are-
  1. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  2. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  • Nucleotides are monomeric units of nucleic acids.
  • Nucleotides are composed of-
  1. Nitrogenous base ( purine or pyrimidine)
  2. Pentose sugar
  3. Phosphate groups (phosphoric acid)
  • Nitrogenous base combines with a pentose sugar to form nucleosides.
  • Nitrogenous base- They are aromatic heterocyclic compounds. There are two types of bases found-

Purines-

  • The purine bases present in RNA and DNA are adenine (A) and guainine (G).

Pyrimidines-

  • The pyrimidine bases present in nucleic acids are
  • Cytosine (C)- present in both DNA and RNA
  • Thymine (T)- present in DNA
  • Uracil (U)- Present in RNA

Pentose Sugars-

  • Pentose sugars present in DNAs are deoxyribose.
  • RNAs are ribose.
  • Nucleosides – Nitrogenous base + pentose sugar by covalent N- glycosidic bond.
  • Carbon-1 of pentose sugar with nitrogen- 9 of the purine base or nitrogen- 1 of pyrimidine base.
  • Nucleotides – Nucleoside + phosphoryl groups 

Nitrogenous

Base

Pentose Sugar

Nucleoside

Nucleotide

Adenine

Ribose

Adenosine

Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP)

Guanine

Ribose

Guanosine

Guanosine Monophosphate (GMP)

Uracil

Ribose

Uridine

Uridine Monophosphate (UMP)                         

  Nucleic Acids- 

  • Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides.
  • DNA is a polymer of deoxyribonucleotides.
  • RNA is a polymer of rebonucleotide.
  • Nucleic acid exhibits polarity.
  • Nucleoside monophosphates – AMP, TMP.
  • Nucleoside diphosphate- ADP
  • Nucleoside triphosphate- ATP
Exam Question
 
  • DNA labelling is done by using P- 32
  • Carbon-I of pentose sugar with nitrogen-9 of the purine base or nitrogen-I of pyrimidine base.
  • Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides joined by 3’-5’ phosphodiester bond.
  • Nucleotides – Nucleoside + phosphoryl groups
  • Double helix is the structure of DNA.
  • Purine bases present in RNA and DNA are adenine (A) and guainine (G)
  • Cytosine (C)- present in both DNA and RNA
  • Thymine (T)- present in DNA
  • Uracil (U)- Present in RNA
  • Nucleosides – Nitrogenous base + pentose sugar by covalent N- glycosidic bond.
  • No. Of strands in DNA are 2.
  • No. Of strands in RNA is 1.
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Nucleotides

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