Pigmentation Disorders

Pigmentation Disorders


Pigmentation Disorders 

  • Acquired symmetric hyper pigmentation of the sun exposed skin of the face and neck, which is strongly associated with pregnancy & use of oral contraceptives is called Melasma.
  • A melanocytic naevus surrounded by a depigmented halo is called Sutton’s Nevus.
  • A giant congenital melanocytic nevus is usually of the size:>20 cm.
  • Salmon patch ,Port wine stain, Naevus aneamicus are examples of vascular malformation.
  • 28 year old pregnant female came to you with complaints of brownish pigmentation on the bridge of nose and cheek. She noticed it after returning from her vacation at  beach. There is no pain or itching at the affected site. Chloasma is the most likely diagnosis.
  • There is no need of treatment for Mongolian Spots.
  • The most common presentation of a blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is assymetric iron deficiency anemia.
  • The most likely diagnosis is a case of intractable convulsions mental defect and facial nevus is Sturge Weber Syndrome.
  • Maximum malignant potential is in Junctional Nevus.
  • Malignant change in nevus is characterised by- Darkening, Hemorrhag, Itching.
  • Common sites for mongolian spot are Lumbosacral Area.
  • Hyperpigmentation (hyper melanosis) of skin is seen in endocrine disorders like Addison’s disease, acromegaly, Nelson’s syndrome, Cushing’s (ectopic ACTH) syndrome, carcinoid syndrome, pheochromocytoma, and hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease) but not in hypothyroidism or myxedeme.
  • Melanoma, dyskeratosis congenita & lentigines lichen planus cause hyperpigmentation.
  • Freckles (or ephelides), Melasma (chloasma or mask of pregnancy), Mongolian spots, Cafe au lait, Becker’s nevus or melanosis (pigmented hairy epidermal nevus), nevus of Ota and nevus of Ito cause hyperpigmented patches
  • Pityriasis alba, pityriasis versicolor, pinta, yaws, syphilis (secondary syphilis – leukoderma syphiliticum), tuberculoid and indeterminate leprosy,Nevus depigmentosus (or achromicus), nevus anaemicus, Sutton’s (Halo) nevus (leukoderma acquisitum centrifugum), hypomelanosis of Ito and Piebaldism – all can cause hypopigmentation (hypomelanosis).
  • The best results in treatment of capillary nevus have been achieved by Argon Laser treatment.
  • Salmon patch usually disappears by 1 year age.
  • Melasma, during pregnancy is seen on face.
  • A 15cm hyperpigmented macule on an adolosent male undergoes changes such as coarceness, growth of hair & acne. Diagnosis is Becker Nevus.
Exam Question
 
  • Acquired symmetric hyper pigmentation of the sun exposed skin of the face and neck, which is strongly associated with pregnancy & use of oral contraceptives is called Melasma.
  • A melanocytic naevus surrounded by a depigmented halo is called Sutton’s Nevus.
  • A giant congenital melanocytic nevus is usually of the size:>20 cm.
  • Salmon patch ,Port wine stain, Naevus aneamicus are examples of vascular malformation.
  • 28 year old pregnant female came to you with complaints of brownish pigmentation on the bridge of nose and cheek. She noticed it after returning from her vacation at  beach. There is no pain or itching at the affected site. Chloasma is the most likely diagnosis.
  • There is no need of treatment for Mongolian Spots.
  • The most common presentation of a blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is assymetric iron deficiency anemia.
  • The most likely diagnosis is a case of intractable convulsions mental defect and facial nevus is Sturge Weber Syndrome.
  • Maximum malignant potential is in Junctional Nevus.
  • Malignant change in nevus is characterised by- Darkening, Hemorrhag, Itching.
  • Common sites for mongolian spot are Lumbosacral Area.
  • Hyperpigmentation (hyper melanosis) of skin is seen in endocrine disorders like Addison’s disease, acromegaly, Nelson’s syndrome, Cushing’s (ectopic ACTH) syndrome, carcinoid syndrome, pheochromocytoma, and hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease) but not in hypothyroidism or myxedeme.
  • Melanoma, dyskeratosis congenita & lentigines lichen planus cause hyperpigmentation.
  • Freckles (or ephelides), Melasma (chloasma or mask of pregnancy), Mongolian spots, Cafe au lait, Becker’s nevus or melanosis (pigmented hairy epidermal nevus), nevus of Ota and nevus of Ito cause hyperpigmented patches
  • Pityriasis alba, pityriasis versicolor, pinta, yaws, syphilis (secondary syphilis – leukoderma syphiliticum), tuberculoid and indeterminate leprosy,Nevus depigmentosus (or achromicus), nevus anaemicus, Sutton’s (Halo) nevus (leukoderma acquisitum centrifugum), hypomelanosis of Ito and Piebaldism – all can cause hypopigmentation (hypomelanosis).
  • The best results in treatment of capillary nevus have been achieved by Argon Laser treatment.
  • Salmon patch usually disappears by 1 year age.
  • Melasma, during pregnancy is seen on face.
  • A 15cm hyperpigmented macule on an adolosent male undergoes changes such as coarceness, growth of hair & acne. Diagnosis is Becker Nevus.
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