Sperm Anatomy

Sperm Anatomy


STRUCTURE:

Head

  • Contains the nucleus with densely coiled chromatin fibres
  • Surrounded anteriorly by an acrosome, which contains enzymes used for penetrating the female egg :
  • Hyaluronidase, acrosin and other proteases 
  • Contains vacuoles.

Neck

  • Contains the sperm centriole

Midpiece

  • Central filamentous core with many mitochondria spiralled around it.
  • Used for ATP production for the journey through the female cervix, uterus and uterine tubes.

Tail or “flagellum”

  • Executes the lashing movements that propel the spermatocyte
  • The structure of the tail  is the axoneme which is composed of several internal structures. 
  • The structures are termed dynein outer arm, dynein inner arm, A tubule, B tubule, radial spoke, radial head, central tubule (middle of wheel) and a nexin link between the A and B tubules to give circular appearance (like a spoke wheel).
  •  A and B tubules dynein arms are attached to the tubules and project toward the nexin link. 
  • The radial spokes jet inward toward the central tubule with the radial head attached to the end of the central tubule. 
  • The structure looks like a spoke wheel.

FUNCTION:

Reach the ovum and fuse with it to deliver two sub-cellular structures:

  • Male pronucleus that contains the genetic material
  • Centriolest hat are structures that help organize the microtubule cytoskeleton.

SPERMATOGENESIS:

  • Location: Seminiferous tubules of the testis.
  • STORAGE: The sperms are stored in the epididymis.
  • DAILY PRODUCTION: 120 million per day
  • Temperature:lower than core body temperature
  • Size:50-60 microns length

STEPS:

Primordial germ cell(Yolk sac in 3rd week of embryonic phase)
Migrate to genital ridge
↓(Mitosis by 6 weeks)
1300 primordial cells or spermatogonia
↓(mitosis near puberty)
Primary spermatocytes
↓( At puberty MeiosisI))
Secondary spermatocytes
↓(Meiosis II)
Spermatid
↓(Acrosome cap derived from golgi body, elongation and condensation of sperm nucleus and a tail)
Spermatozoa
 Exam Question
 
  • Daily sperm production is 120 million per day
  • Mitochondria of a sperm is seen in Body
  •  With respect to the spermatozoa tail structure Axoneme is the unit that is essential for motility
  • Spermatogenesis occurs at Temperature lower than core body temperature
  • Length of a mature human spermatozoon is 50-60 microns
  • Sperm after formation is stored in Epididymis
  • Acrosome cap of sperm is derived from Golgi body
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Sperm Anatomy

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