- Trachea is 10-15 cm long tube formed by C- shaped hyaline cartilagenous rings & fibromuscular membrane.
- It extends from lower border of cricoid cartilage (at C6 level) to lower border of T4 or upper border of T5 vertebra (T4-T5 disc space) where it bifurcates.
- Its external diameter is about 2 cm in males & about 1.5 cm in females.
- It has 16-20 cartilagenous rings.
- First tracheal ring is the broadest.
- Last ring at tracheal bifurcation shows carina, a triangular hoop-shaped process separating the bronchi, i.e Carina is bifurcation of trachea.
- Trachea is lined by ciliated columnar epithelium.
- It is supplied by inferior thyroid artery & is drained by left brachiocephalic vein.
- Sensory & motor supply to trachea is provided by parasympathetic system through vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerve.
- Vasomotor supply is by sympathetic fibres through middle cervical ganglion along inferior thyroid arteries.
- Level of trachea bifurcation in pediatic patient is T3.
- Cartilage in trachea Hyaline.
- Angle of tracheal bifurcation is increased in enlargement of Left atrium.
- Bifurcation of trachea is at Opposite the disc between the T4-T5 vertebrae.
- Bifurcation of trachea is at the level of lower border of T4.
- The Sensory supply of trachea is by vagus .
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