Identify the Instrument shown in the Photograph
Ophthalmoscopy, also called fundoscopy
- It is a test that allows to see inside the fundus of the eye and other structures using an ophthalmoscope (or fundoscope). It is crucial in determining the health of the retina, optic disc, and vitreous humor.
- It is of two major types:
- Direct ophthalmoscopy : produces an upright, or unreversed, image of approximately 15 times magnification.
- Indirect ophthalmoscopy: produces an inverted, or reversed, direct image of 2 to 5 times magnification.
|Features||Direct ophthalmoscopy||Indirect ophthalmoscopy|
|Condensing lens||Not Required||Required|
|Examination distance||As close to patient’s eye as possible||At an arm’s length|
|Image||Virtual, erect||Real, inverted|
|Illumination||Not as bright; not useful in hazy media||Bright; useful for hazy media|
|Area of field in focus||About 2 disc diameters||About 8 disc diameters|
|Accessible fundus view||Slightly beyond equator||Up to Ora serrata i.e. peripheral retina|
|Examination through hazy media||Not possible||Possible|
- Each type of ophthalmoscopy has a special type of ophthalmoscope:
- The direct ophthalmoscope is an instrument about the size of a small flashlight (torch) with several lenses that can magnify up to about 15 times. This type of ophthalmoscope is most commonly used during a routine physical examination.
- An indirect ophthalmoscope, on the other hand, constitutes a light attached to a headband, in addition to a small handheld lens. It provides a wider view of the inside of the eye.