All of the following disease show this type of phenomenon except:
Iceberg Phenomenon is shown in the image.
Iceberg of disease
- Disease in a community may be compared with an iceberg.
- The floating tip of the iceberg represents what the physian sees in the community, i.e. clinical cases (Diagnosed case, symptomatic case or clinically apparent case).
- The vast submerged portion of the iceberg represents the hidden mass of disease, i.e. latent, inapparent, presymptomatic and undiagnosed cases and carriers in the community.
- The “waterline” represents the demarcation between apparent and inapparent disease.
- Epidemiologist is concerned with Hidden portion of iceberg whereas clinician is concerned with tip of iceberg.
- Screening is done for Hidden portion of iceberg whereas diagnosis is done for tip of iceberg.
- Iceberg phenomenon of disease is not shown by rabies, tetanus and measles.
- The clinician concerned only with the tip of iceberg, i.e symptomatic cases that are seen in clinical treatment, this can result in inaccurate view of the nature and causes of a disease results because the minority of the cases are studied (hidden cases :- submerged portion of ice berg is not studied) -3 Clinician’s Fallacy.
- Diseases with a great deal of subclinical infection (therefore have iceberg phenomenon) are :-
- Japanese encephalitis
- Hepatitis A and B