The surgical instrument shown in the picture above represents Proctoscope.
Proctoscope is a medical instrument with an integral lamp for examining the anus and lower part of the rectum or carrying out minor medical procedures.
Proctoscopy, performed with the patient in the same position, allows detailed inspection of the distal rectum and anal canal.
Minor procedures can also be carried out through this instrument, e.g. treatment of hemorrhoids by injection or banding and biopsy.