Granulosa-theca cell tumor
Image shows: Mucinous cystadenoma with multicystic appearance and delicate septa. Note the presence of glistening mucin within the cysts.
- On gross examination, mucinous tumors produce cystic masses that may be indistinguishable from serous tumors except by the mucinous nature of the cystic contents.
- However, they are more likely to be larger and multicystic .
- Serosal penetration and solid areas of growth are suggestive of malignancy.
- On histologic examination, the cysts are lined by mucin-producing epithelial cells .
- Malignant tumors are characterized by the presence of architectural complexity, including solid areas of growth, cellular stratification, cytologic atypia, and stromal invasion.
- Compared with serous tumors, mucinous tumors are much less likely to be bilateral.
- This feature is sometimes useful in differentiating mucinous tumors of the ovary from metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma from a gastrointestinal tract primary (the so-called Krukenberg tumor), which more often produces bilateral ovarian masses.
- Ruptured ovarian mucinous tumors may seed the peritoneum; however, these deposits typically are transient and fail to establish long-term growth in the peritoneum.
- Implantation of mucinous tumor cells in the peritoneum with production of copious amounts of mucin is called pseudomyxoma peritonei; in most cases, this disorder is caused by metastasis from the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the appendix.
• Tumors may arise from epithelium,sex cord–stromal cells, or germ cells.
• Epithelial tumors are the most common malignant ovarian tumors and are more common in women older than 40 years of age.
• The major types of epithelial tumors are serous,mucinous, and endometrioid. Each has a benign, malignant, and borderline (low malignant potential) counterpart.
• Sex cord–stromal tumors may display differentiation toward granulosa, Sertoli, Leydig, or ovarian stromal cell type. Depending on differentiation, they may produce estrogens or androgens.
• Germ cell tumors (mostly cystic teratomas) are the most common ovarian tumor in young women; a majority are benign.
• Germ cell tumors may differentiate toward oogonia (dysgerminoma), primitive embryonal tissue (embryonal), yolk sac (endodermal sinus tumor), placental tissue (choriocarcinoma), or multiple fetal tissues (teratoma).