Inferior vena cava
Answer C) Vagus nerve
Explanation: Damage to this structure may cause gastroparesis.
The vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) exits the thoracic cavity together with the esophagus through the esophageal hiatus, a diaphragmatic aperture at the level of T10, and innervates the smooth muscle cells of the digestive tract.
Periesophageal vagus nerve injury, which may occur during thoracic or gastric surgery, typically manifests with delayed gastric emptying.
Other symptoms of vagus nerve injury depend on the level at which the lesion is located and include loss of the gag reflex, vocal cord paralysis (manifesting as hoarseness), and autonomic dysfunction (e.g., impaired heart rate variability).
Further causes of vagus nerve injury include diabetic neuropathy, trauma, and inflammation.