Answer D) Neuroectoderm
This presentation of sudden vision problems, balance issues (e.g., Romberg sign), and worsening of neurological symptoms with increased bodily temperatures (known as the Uhthoff phenomenon) in a young woman is highly suggestive of multiple sclerosis, a demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS).
Neuroectoderm is the embryonic germ layer that gives rise to neurons of the CNS, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes.
Demyelinating disorders of the CNS are caused by injury to oligodendrocytes.
- These injuries can be caused by inflammation (e.g., multiple sclerosis as seen in this patient), infection (e.g., progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy), nutritional disorders (e.g., subacute combined degeneration), metabolic disorders (e.g., central pontine myelinolysis), and genetic conditions (e.g., leukodystrophies).