Answer D) Gastroschisis
Failure of lateral fold closure leads to a full-thickness abdominal wall defect that allows the growing bowel to herniate through at the weakest point.
Gastroschisis is a congenital ventral wall defect that leads to intestinal herniation through the involuted right umbilical vein, the weakest part of the fetal abdominal wall.
As gastroschisis is an uncovered abdominal wall defect, a-fetoprotein (AFP) can diffuse freely into the amniotic fluid and maternal circulation, leading to elevated maternal serum AFP, which can be used as a screening test.
As a confirmatory test, fetal ultrasound will show free-floating bowel without a membranous sac.
Risk factors include young maternal age (i.e., under 20 years of age), and tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy. Initial treatment of a newborn with gastroschisis includes placing the extruded abdominal contents in a protective silo, nasogastric decompression, and immediate surgical correction.