A 6-year-old male develops a rapidly enlarging jaw lesion and increased abdominal girth. A biopsy specimen reveals a monomorphic population of intermediate-sized lymphocytes, with a basophilic nucleolus and increased mitotic figures. Which of the following neoplasms is one of the fastest growing hematologic tumors in children?
Acute lymphocytic leukemia
Answer : D Burkitt lymphoma
Leukemia is the most common cancer in children. Most are acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and to a lesser extent acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Leukemia does not usually present as a mass forming lesion.
Rhabdomyosarcoma in children is a tumor in which malignant cells resemble immature muscle cells. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. It is not a hematologic malignancy.
Wilms tumor, also referred to as nephroblastoma, is the fourth most common type of cancer in childhood. It is also the most common kidney cancer in children. It is not a hematologic disease, it is a tumor that primarily affects the kidneys.
Burkitt lymphoma is a hematologic malignancy that presents in children often as a jaw or abdominal mass that is rapidly growing. Commonly there is translocation and deregulation of the c-myc gene on chromosome 8 leading to reduced apoptosis and a high rate of tumor cell proliferation.