A 30-year-old female presents with shortness of breath. Auscultation revealed a systolic murmur radiating to the axilla. Pulmonary artery pressures are more than 40 mmHg. Chest x-ray reveals congestive heart failure. What is the cause of pulmonary hypertension in this patient?
This patient has pulmonary hypertension secondary to mitral regurgitation.
Pulmonary hypertension secondary to left heart disease, valvular disorders, or restrictive cardiomyopathy is classified as Group II WHO pulmonary hypertension classification.
Pulmonary hypertension is defined as pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) greater than 25 mmHg at rest and greater than 30 mmHg during exercise.
The gold standard test to diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) is right heart catheterization. It also accurately measures pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP). High mean PAP with PCWP greater than 15 mmHg is typically seen in PH due to left heart disease.