MCQ – 89159


A 65-year-old patient presents with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The exam shows a barrel chest and the patient is pursing their lips. The lung exam shows distant breath sounds and they are hyper resonant. They are hypoxic and develop hypercapnia over time. Which of the following are the compensatory measures in these patients?

A. The shift of normal respiratory drive to hypercapnic drive


Renal compensation to maintain near-normal pH


Maintenance of the ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) ratio by compensatory renal vasodilation


Maintenance of pH by pulmonary vasoconstriction

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