Clostridium Botulinum

Clostridium Botulinum

Q. 1

Botulism is a disease of 

 A

Neural transmission caused by the toxin of the bacterium clostridium botulinum

 B

Muscular transmission caused by the toxin of the bacterium clostridium botulinum

 C

Neuromuscular transmission caused by the toxin of the bacterium clostridium botulinum

 D

Non neuromuscular transmission caused by the toxin of the bacterium clostridium botulinum

Q. 1

Botulism is a disease of 

 A

Neural transmission caused by the toxin of the bacterium clostridium botulinum

 B

Muscular transmission caused by the toxin of the bacterium clostridium botulinum

 C

Neuromuscular transmission caused by the toxin of the bacterium clostridium botulinum

 D

Non neuromuscular transmission caused by the toxin of the bacterium clostridium botulinum

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Neuromuscular transmission caused by the toxin of the bacterium clostridium botulinum

Botulinum Toxin

.  Cl. botulinum produces a powerful exotoxin that is responsible for its pathogenicity.

.    The toxin differs from other exotoxins in that it is not released during the life of organism. It is produced intracellularly and appears in the medium only on the death and autolysis of the cell.

.  It is the most toxic substance known.

. Toxin is heat labile, but spores are highly heat resistant.

.  It acts by blocking the release of acetylcholine at synapses and neuromuscular junction. It acts presynaptically.

.  Toxin of all types (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) are neurotoxin except C2 which is a cytotoxin (enterotoxin).


Q. 2

Among the toxin produced by clostridium botulinum, the non neurotoxic one is – 

 A

A

 B

B

 C

Cl

 D

C2

Q. 2

Among the toxin produced by clostridium botulinum, the non neurotoxic one is – 

 A

A

 B

B

 C

Cl

 D

C2

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d’ i.e., C2

.                    Toxin of all types (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) are neurotoxin except C2 which is a cytotoxin (enterotoxin).



Q. 3

The following statements are true regarding botulism except –

 A

Infant botulism is caused by ingestion of preformed toxin

 B

Clostridium botulinum A, B, C and F cause human disease

 C

The gene for botulinum toxin is encoded by a bacteriophage

 D

Clostridium baratti may cause botulism

Q. 3

The following statements are true regarding botulism except –

 A

Infant botulism is caused by ingestion of preformed toxin

 B

Clostridium botulinum A, B, C and F cause human disease

 C

The gene for botulinum toxin is encoded by a bacteriophage

 D

Clostridium baratti may cause botulism

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Infant botulism is caused by ingestion of preformed toxin

.   Infant botulism is caused by ingestion of spores. Spores are ingested in food, get established in the gut and there produce the toxin.

“Seven main types of C. botulinum, designated A – G, produce antigenically distinct toxins with pharmacologically identical action. All types can cause human disease, but type A, B and E are most common”.

(In Harrison & Ananthanarayan, eight types of C. botulinum A, B, CI, C2, D, E, F, G have been mentioned).

.    Toxin production in clostridium botulinum appears to be determined by presence of bacteriophage (at least in type

C & D).

.   “Clostridium butyricum and clostridium baratti have also been found to produce toxin”. – Harrison 16th/e 843 – Any strain producing toxin will obviously cause botulism.



Q. 4

Category A bioterrorism agents are-(

 A

Ebola

 B

Yersinia

 C

Clostridium botulinum

 D

All

Q. 4

Category A bioterrorism agents are-(

 A

Ebola

 B

Yersinia

 C

Clostridium botulinum

 D

All

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Ebola, ‘b’ i.e. Yersinia, ‘c’ i.e. C. botulinum

Bioterrorism

.    A bioterrorism attack is the delibrate release of viruses, bacteria or other germs ( agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals or plants. These agents are typically found in nature, but it is possible that they could be changed to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment. Biological agents can be spread through the air, through water or in food. Terrorists may use biological agents because they can be extermely difficult to detect and do not cause illness for several hours to several days. Some bioterrorism agents, like the small pox virus, can be spread from person to person and some like anthrax, cannot.

Bioterrorism agent categories

Category A

.   These high priority agents include organisms or toxins that pose the highest risk to the public and national security because:

i)         They can be easily spread or transmitted from person to person.

ii)       They result in high death rates and have potential for major public health impact.

iii)      They might cause public panic and social disruption.

iv)     They require special action for public health preparedness.

Category B

.  These agents are second highest priority because:

i)         They are moderately easy to spread.

ii)       They result in moderate illness rates and low death rates.

iii)      They require specific enhancements of CDC’s laboratory capacity and enhanced disease monitoring. Category C

.    These third highest priority agents include emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass spread in the future because:

i)         They are easily available.

ii)       They are easily produced and spread.

iii)      They have potential for high morbidity and mortality rates and major health impact.

CDC Category A, B, and C Agents

Category A

Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)

Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin)

Plague (Yersinia pestis)

Smallpox (Variola major)

Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

Viral hemorrhagic fevers

Arenaviruses : Lassa, New World (Machupo, Junin, Guanarito, and Sabia)

Bunyaviridae : Crimean Congo, Rift Valley

Filoviridae : Ebola, Marburg

Flaviviridae : Yellow fever; Omsk fever; Kyasanur Forest Category B

Brucellosis (Brucella spp.)

Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens

Food safety threats (e.g., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Shigella)

Glanders (Burkholderia mallei)

Melioidosis (B. pseudomallei)

Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)

Q fever (Coxiella burnetii)

Ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor beans)

Staphylococcal enterotoxin B

Typhus fever (Rickettsia prowazekii)

Viral encephalitis [alphaviruses (e.g., Venezuelan, eastern, and western equine encephalitis)]

Water safety threats (e.g. Vibrio cholerae, Cryptosporidium parvum) Category C

Emerging infectious diseases threats such as Nipah, hantavirus, and SARS coronoavirus.


Q. 5

Preformed toxin is important in food poisoning due to all EXCEPT –

 A

Staph aureus

 B

Clostridium botulism

 C

ETEC

 D

B.cereus

Q. 5

Preformed toxin is important in food poisoning due to all EXCEPT –

 A

Staph aureus

 B

Clostridium botulism

 C

ETEC

 D

B.cereus

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., ETEC (Enterotoxigenic E.coli)

Preformed toxin causes food poisoning .Staph aureus

. Bacillus cereus

. Clostridium botulism.

. Clostridium perfringens


Q. 6

In a 6 months old baby, floppy infant syndrome is seen commonly due to infection with ‑

 A

Clostridium welchii

 B

Clostridium tetani

 C

Clostridium Botulinum

 D

Clostridium septicum

Q. 6

In a 6 months old baby, floppy infant syndrome is seen commonly due to infection with ‑

 A

Clostridium welchii

 B

Clostridium tetani

 C

Clostridium Botulinum

 D

Clostridium septicum

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is `c’ i.e., Clostridium Botulinum

o Botulism causes acute flaccid paralysis —> floppy infant.


Q. 7

Clostridium botulinum toxin mode of action is by:

March 2012

 A

Presynaptic block

 B

Postsvnaptic block

 C

Competitive inhibition of acetylcholine

 D

Destruction of acetylcholine

Q. 7

Clostridium botulinum toxin mode of action is by:

March 2012

 A

Presynaptic block

 B

Postsvnaptic block

 C

Competitive inhibition of acetylcholine

 D

Destruction of acetylcholine

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans: A i.e. Presynaptic block

Cl. Botulinum toxin acts by blocking the production/ release of acetylcholine at the synapses & neuromuscular junctions


Q. 8

Causative organism of food poisoning due to home canned food:

JIPMER 12

 A

Bacillus cereus

 B

Salmonella

 C

Clostridium botulinum

 D

Staphylococci

Q. 8

Causative organism of food poisoning due to home canned food:

JIPMER 12

 A

Bacillus cereus

 B

Salmonella

 C

Clostridium botulinum

 D

Staphylococci

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. Clostridium botulinum


Q. 9

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) following administration of honey is due to:

MAHE 12

 A

Staphylococcus aureus

 B

Yersinia enterocolitica

 C

E. coli

 D

Clostridium botulinum

Q. 9

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) following administration of honey is due to:

MAHE 12

 A

Staphylococcus aureus

 B

Yersinia enterocolitica

 C

E. coli

 D

Clostridium botulinum

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. Clostridium botulinum


Q. 10

Dysphagia, diplopia, dysarthria are characteristic symptoms of food poisoning due to:    

UPSC 08

 A

Staphylococcus aureus

 B

Clostridium botulinum

 C

Salmonella typhimurium

 D

Bacillus cereus

Q. 10

Dysphagia, diplopia, dysarthria are characteristic symptoms of food poisoning due to:    

UPSC 08

 A

Staphylococcus aureus

 B

Clostridium botulinum

 C

Salmonella typhimurium

 D

Bacillus cereus

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. Clostridium botulinum


Q. 11

Which poisoning can be prevented by an antitoxin:

MAHE 11

 A

Staphylococcus aureus

 B

Clostridium botulinum

 C

Salmonella typhimurium

 D

Bacillus cereus

Q. 11

Which poisoning can be prevented by an antitoxin:

MAHE 11

 A

Staphylococcus aureus

 B

Clostridium botulinum

 C

Salmonella typhimurium

 D

Bacillus cereus

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. Clostridium botulinum


Q. 12

Which of the following is false about Botulism?

 A

It is a type food poisoning

 B

Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin

 C

It is an infection and not intoxication

 D

The causative organism is Clostridium botulinum

Q. 12

Which of the following is false about Botulism?

 A

It is a type food poisoning

 B

Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin

 C

It is an infection and not intoxication

 D

The causative organism is Clostridium botulinum

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., It is an infection and not intoxication

Botulism

  • It is a form of food poisoning.
  • Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxic protein. It paralyses the nerve endings by blocking the nerve impulses at the myoneural junction. It blocks the action of acetylcholine.
  • Botulism is an intoxication, not an infection. Clostridium botulinum organism does not grow in the body.
  • The causative organism is Cl. botulinum. It multiplies in food (sausages, tinned meat) before it is consumed, and produces a powerful exotoxin under suitable anaerobic conditions.


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