Difference between Meningitis and Encephalitis

Difference between Meningitis and Encephalitis

Q. 1 Drug used to treat Cryptococcal meningitis is:
March 2007

 A

Pentostatin

 B

Amphotericin B

 C

Zidovudine

 D

Clotrimazole

Q. 1

Drug used to treat Cryptococcal meningitis is:
March 2007

 A

Pentostatin

 B

Amphotericin B

 C

Zidovudine

 D

Clotrimazole

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. B: Amphotericin B

Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus. It causes meningitis, especially as a secondary infection in AIDS patients.

Cryptococcosis that does not affect the central nervous system can be treated with fluconazole alone.

Cryptococcal meningitis should be treated for two weeks with intravenous Amphotericin B and oral flucytosine. Main disadvantage of Amphotericin B includes nephrotoxicity.


Q. 2 Most common cause for meningitis in adults:
September 2009

 A

H.Influenzae

 B

N.meningitidis

 C

Staph.aureus

 D

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Q. 2

Most common cause for meningitis in adults:
September 2009

 A

H.Influenzae

 B

N.meningitidis

 C

Staph.aureus

 D

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. D: Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of meningitis in adults of age over twenty years, accounting for nearly half of the cases.

N. meningitidis accounts for nearly 25% of the cases. Staph.aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are important causes of meningitis that occurs following neurosurgical procedures.


Q. 3 Most common causative agent for meningitis in the immunocompromised patient is:      
September 2009

 A

Histoplasmosis

 B

Cryptococcus

 C

Candida albicans

 D

Coccidiomycosis

Q. 3

Most common causative agent for meningitis in the immunocompromised patient is:      
September 2009

 A

Histoplasmosis

 B

Cryptococcus

 C

Candida albicans

 D

Coccidiomycosis

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. B: Cryptococcus

Cryptococcosis is a systemic or central nervous system (CNS) fungal infection caused by the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. The organism is ubiquitous, but is particularly plentiful in soils enriched with bird droppings.

In immunocompetent patients, cryptococcal infection is usually asymptomatic, self-limited, and confined to the lungs.

In persons with advanced HIV infection (e.g., those with CD4 counts

In HIV-infected patients, Cryptococcus can infect almost all organs in the body, but most commonly causes meningitis or meningoencephalitis.

Quiz In Between


Q. 4 Drug treatment is given for how many days in pneumococcal meningitis

 A

5 days

 B

7 days

 C

14 days

 D

21 days

Q. 4

Drug treatment is given for how many days in pneumococcal meningitis

 A

5 days

 B

7 days

 C

14 days

 D

21 days

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., 14 days

Recommendations for duration of treatment

  • Pneumococcal meningitis                       —> 10-14 days
  • Meningococcal meningitis                              5-7 days
  • Hib meningitis                                       —> 7-14 days
  • Listeria meningitis                                 —>     21 days

Q. 5

How long should a child be isolated after being diagnosed with bacterial meningitis to prevent further transmission?

 A Till 24 hours after starting antibiotics

 B

Till cultures become negative

 C

Till antibiotic course is complete

 D

Till l2hrs alter admission

Q. 5

How long should a child be isolated after being diagnosed with bacterial meningitis to prevent further transmission?

 A

Till 24 hours after starting antibiotics

 B

Till cultures become negative

 C

Till antibiotic course is complete

 D

Till l2hrs alter admission

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans: A. Till 24 hours after starting antibiotics
Ref: Ghai Essentisl Pediatrics, 8’t’ ed,, pg. 565′ https://www.cdc.gov
Prevention of transmission:

  • Droplet precautions for the first 24 hours of antimicrobial therapy is sufficient

Quiz In Between



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