Intracellular accumulations

Intracellular accumulations

Q. 1 Cloudy swelling is:
 A Irreversible
 B Reversible
 C Physiological and never pathological
 D Late manifestation of cell injury
Q. 1 Cloudy swelling is:
 A Irreversible
 B Reversible
 C Physiological and never pathological
 D Late manifestation of cell injury
Ans. B

Explanation:

Reversible


Q. 2

Steatosis means –

 A

Fatty change

 B

Accumulation of triglyceride

 C

Accumulation of glycogen

 D

A and b

Q. 2

Steatosis means –

 A

Fatty change

 B

Accumulation of triglyceride

 C

Accumulation of glycogen

 D

A and b

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Fatty change; ‘b’ i.e., Accumulation of triglyceride

Intracellular accumulation

o One of the manifestations of metabolic derangements in cells is the intracellular accumulation of abnormal amounts of various substances.

o It implies the storage of some product by individual cell.

o Intracellular accumulation fall into three categories.

  1. A normal constituent is accumulated in excess such as water, lipids, proteins, Carbohydrates.
  2. An abnormal substance either exogenous (e.g., mineral) or endogenous (e.g., product of abnormal metabolisms), is accumulated in excess.
  3. Pigment is accumulated.

o Pathogenesis of intracellular accumulation

Intracellular accumulation may occur by any of the three abnormalities : ‑

  1. A normal endogenous product is produced at a normal rate, but the rate of metabolism is inadequate to remove it, e.g., fatty change (steatosis) in liver.
  2. A normal or abnormal endogenous product is accumulated becuase of genetic or acquired defects in the metabolism, packaging or transport of these substances e.g., lysosomal storage diseases.
  3. An abnormal exogenous substance is deposited and accumulates because the cell has neither the enzymatic machinery to degrade the substance nor the ability to transfer it to other sites.

Fatty change (Steatosis)

o The term steatosis (fatty change) describe abnormal accumlation of triglyceride within parenchymal cells. o Liver is involved most commonly. Other organs involved are heart and kidney.

o In all organs fatty change appears as clear vacuoles within parenchymal cells. In heart, alteration of yellowish streaks (fatty change) and reddish streaks (unaffected myocardium) gives tigeroid or tabby cat appearance. o To identify fat, frozen tissue sections are stained with Sudan IV or oil Red 0 which give orange red colour.


Q. 3

Cloudy swelling is due to –

 A

Accumulation of water intracellularly

 B

Fat accumulation intracellularly

 C

Lysozyme degeneration

 D

Glycogen accumulation intracellularly

Q. 3

Cloudy swelling is due to –

 A

Accumulation of water intracellularly

 B

Fat accumulation intracellularly

 C

Lysozyme degeneration

 D

Glycogen accumulation intracellularly

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Accumulation of water intracellulary

o Cloudy swelling of a cell is degenerative change, in which the cells swell due to injury to the membrane affecting ionic transfer, causing the cytoplasm to appear cloudy and water to accumulate between the cells, with resultant swelling of the tissue.

o It is also called abominoid degeneration, hydropic degeneration or parenchymatous degeneration.

Quiz In Between


Q. 4

Stain used for melanin –

 A

Masson Fontana

 B

Prussain blue

 C

Masson trichrome

 D

Congo red

Q. 4

Stain used for melanin –

 A

Masson Fontana

 B

Prussain blue

 C

Masson trichrome

 D

Congo red

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Masson fontana

Stains used for melanin are :

o Fontana-Masson method : most commonly used. It relies upon the melanin granules to reduce ammoniacal silver nitrate.

o Schmorl’s method : uses the reducing properties of melanin to stain granules blue-green.

o DOPA oxidase : It is the most specific method. It is an enzyme histochemical method. The stain works because the DOPA substrate is acted upon by DOPA-oxidase in the melanin-producing cells to produce a brownish black deposit.

o Bleaching techniques : remove melanin in order to get a good look at cellular morphology. They make use of a strong oxidizing agent such as potassium permanganate or hydrogen peroxide.


Q. 5

Color of hemosiderin is:   

DNB 09

 A

Brown

 B

Green

 C

Yellow

 D

Red

Q. 5

Color of hemosiderin is:   

DNB 09

 A

Brown

 B

Green

 C

Yellow

 D

Red

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. Brown

Quiz In Between



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