Physical Torture

Physical Torture

Q. 1 “Falanga” is defined as? 
 A Severe beating of soles 
 B Sexual torture 
 C

Pulling of hairs

 D Pulling of ears
Q. 1 “Falanga” is defined as? 
 A Severe beating of soles 
 B Sexual torture 
 C

Pulling of hairs

 D Pulling of ears
Ans. A

Explanation:

Severe beating of soles REF: Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology: Principles and Practice, 5/e By Krishan Vij page 192

See APPENDIX-41 for “PHYSICAL METHODS OF TORTURE/ CORPORAL PUNISHMENT”

“Foot whipping, variously known as bastinado, falanga (phalanga), and falaka (falaqa), is a form of corporal punishment whereby the soles of the feet are beaten with an object such as a cane or rod, a club, a piece of wood, a stout leather bullwhip, or a flexible bat of heavy rubber. It is also sometimes favoured as a form of torture because, although extremely painful, it leaves few physical marks, though evidence can be detected via ultrasound technology”


Q. 2

What is Falanga?

 A

Beating on soles with blunt object

 B

Beating on ear with both palms

 C

Beating on the abdomen

 D

Suspension by wrists

Q. 2

What is Falanga?

 A

Beating on soles with blunt object

 B

Beating on ear with both palms

 C

Beating on the abdomen

 D

Suspension by wrists

Ans. A

Explanation:

Beating on the soles with blunt object [Ref. Reddy 25/e, p 257http://medinl I? ic in/jal/t04/i2/jalt04i2p66.pdf]

Methods of torture

1. Beatings:

– To the soles of the feet (falanga, falaka, baatinada)

– With the palms on both the ears simultaneously (el telefone)

– On the abdomen, while lying on a table with the upper half of the body unsupported (operating table, el quirofano)

2. Suspension:

– By the wrist (la bandera)

– By the arms or neck

– By the ankles (mercelago)

– Head down, from a horizontal pole placed under the knees, with the wrists bound to the ankles (parrot’s perch, jack, pau de arara)

– Bhutanese technique – tight clamping of the thighs or legs with bamboo, sometimes for a number of days. The torturer may press the two sides of the clamps with his legs or may stand on the two sides of the clamps (chepuwa)

3.Near suffocation:

– Forced immersion of head in water, often contaminated (wet submarine, pileta, latina)

– Tying of a plastic bag covering the head and face (dry submarine)

4. Electric:

– Torturing with electric shocks, usually placing electricity terminals in the vagina, mouth, anus, or over testicles and nipples (picana)

– Heated metal skewer inserted into the anus (black slave).

5.Forced posture:

– Prolonged standing (el planton)

– Forced straddling of a bar (saw horse, el cabellete)


Q. 3 Falanga is:
 A Beating on soles with blunt object
 B Beating on ear with both palms
 C Beating on the abdomen
 D Suspension by wrists
Q. 3 Falanga is:
 A Beating on soles with blunt object
 B Beating on ear with both palms
 C Beating on the abdomen
 D Suspension by wrists
Ans. A

Explanation:

Beating on soles with blunt object

Quiz In Between


Q. 4

What is Falanga:

 A

Beating on soles with blunt object

 B

Beating on ear with both palms

 C

Beating on the abdomen

 D

Suspension by wrists

Q. 4

What is Falanga:

 A

Beating on soles with blunt object

 B

Beating on ear with both palms

 C

Beating on the abdomen

 D

Suspension by wrists

Ans. A

Explanation:

Beating on ear with both palms


Q. 5

The torture method involving simultaneous beating of both ears with palms of hand, resulting in rupture of tympanic membrane is called?

 A

Falanga

 B

Waterboarding

 C

Telefono

 D

Dunking

Q. 5

The torture method involving simultaneous beating of both ears with palms of hand, resulting in rupture of tympanic membrane is called?

 A

Falanga

 B

Waterboarding

 C

Telefono

 D

Dunking

Ans. C

Explanation:

Falanga involves beating on sole of feet. In dunking the victim is immersed in water.

In water boarding the victim is immobilised in a supine position with head inclined downwards and water is poured on the face.

Ref: Textbook of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology by V.V Pillay, 15th Edition, Page 118.

Q. 6

The term ‘telefono’ is referred the following type of torture:

 A

Beating the soles of feet with rod

 B

Beating of the ears

 C

Forced immersion of head until stage of suffocation

 D

Tying of a plastic bag over head

Q. 6

The term ‘telefono’ is referred the following type of torture:

 A

Beating the soles of feet with rod

 B

Beating of the ears

 C

Forced immersion of head until stage of suffocation

 D

Tying of a plastic bag over head

Ans. B

Explanation:

Telefono is a type of a torture. It consists of repeated slapping of the sides of the head (over ears) by the open palms of the assailant. This may cause rupture of ear drums.
 
Other types of tortures:
  • Falanga (falaka, bastinado): In this canes or rods are used to beat on the soles of the feet, which is very painful and debilitating.
  • Web submarino, latina: Forced immersion of head often contaminated with urine or faeces, until the stage of suffocation.
  • Dry submarino: Tying of a plastic bag over the head up to the point of suffocation.
Ref: The essentials of forensic medicine and toxicology by Dr K S Narayan Reddy, 27th edition, Page 261.

Quiz In Between


Q. 7

Which of the following torture techniques are known by the term ‘Telefono’?

 A

Beating the soles of feet with a rod

 B

Both ears are clapped

 C

Repeatedly shocked through wires

 D

Tying of a plastic bag over head

Q. 7

Which of the following torture techniques are known by the term ‘Telefono’?

 A

Beating the soles of feet with a rod

 B

Both ears are clapped

 C

Repeatedly shocked through wires

 D

Tying of a plastic bag over head

Ans. B

Explanation:

Bell (campana): a method of torture leaving no external marks in which a person’s head is placed within a pail or other metal container which is then struck repeatedly, causing sudden loud sounds and reverberations

Buzzer (chicharra): a method of torture in which the person is repeatedly shocked through wires or other conducting objects that are attached to parts of the body (e.g., ears, eyes, eyelids, genitals, gums, soles of feet)
 
Carry On: a method of communal torture in which a group of guards use batons, pick handles, and other weapons to beat prisoners
 
Chepuwa: a method of torture in which the person’s thighs are tightly bound with bamboo or similar materials
 
Falanga: a method of torture in which the soles of the feet are repeatedly struck with either hard (e.g., canes) or pliable (e.g., wires) objects
 
Helicopter trip: a method of torture in which the person is hung upright or upside-down from one of the large blades of a ceiling fan and is struck repeatedly as the blade revolves
 
Necklacing: a method of torture in which a tire, filled with gasoline or similar flammable liquid, is placed around the person’s neck and set afire; also, a method of psychological torture in which a landmine, grenade, or similar explosive is tied around a person’s neck in a way that it is difficult or impossible to remove without detonation
 
Torment of the sticks (Supplice de baguettes): a method of torture in which two sticks are placed through a wire encircling a person’s head and are slowly turned, tightening the wire
 
Telephone (telefono): a method of torture in which both ears are clapped or otherwise struck
 
Wet submarino (Latino) – forced immersion of head in water often contaminated with urine or faeces.
 
Dry submarino – tying of a plastic bag over the head up to the point of suffocation.
 
Cattle prod – electric shock are given using high voltage current.
 
Black slave – heated metal skewer inserted into the anus.

Q. 8

What is Falanga?

 A

Beating on soles with blunt object

 B

Beating on ear with both palms

 C

Beating on the abdomen

 D

Suspension by wrists

Q. 8

What is Falanga?

 A

Beating on soles with blunt object

 B

Beating on ear with both palms

 C

Beating on the abdomen

 D

Suspension by wrists

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Beating on soles with blunt object


Q. 9

Prohibition of participation in torture by a doctor comes under:        

MP 10; NEET 15; COMEDK 15

 A

Declaration of Tokyo

 B

Declaration of Helsinki

 C

Declaration of Oslo

 D

Declaration of Geneva

Q. 9

Prohibition of participation in torture by a doctor comes under:        

MP 10; NEET 15; COMEDK 15

 A

Declaration of Tokyo

 B

Declaration of Helsinki

 C

Declaration of Oslo

 D

Declaration of Geneva

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. Declaration of Tokyo

Quiz In Between


Q. 10

‘Falanga’ is:      

AIIMS 08; TN 09; DNB 10; NEET 13

 A

Sitting in abnormal position

 B

Hitting the feet with stick

 C

Electric current for torture

 D

Pulling of hair

Q. 10

‘Falanga’ is:      

AIIMS 08; TN 09; DNB 10; NEET 13

 A

Sitting in abnormal position

 B

Hitting the feet with stick

 C

Electric current for torture

 D

Pulling of hair

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. Hitting the feet with stick


Q. 11

Torture in which legs or thighs are tied with bamboo and the torturer presses on the two sides of the clamp to cause pain is called ‑

 A

Falanga

 B

Telefono

 C

Mercelago

 D

Chepuwa

Q. 11

Torture in which legs or thighs are tied with bamboo and the torturer presses on the two sides of the clamp to cause pain is called ‑

 A

Falanga

 B

Telefono

 C

Mercelago

 D

Chepuwa

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d’ i.e., Chepuwa

Physical torture

  • Torture is defined as deliberate, systemic or wanton infliction of physical or mental suffering by one or more persons acting alone or on the orders of any authority, to force a person to yield information, to make a confession or for any other reason.
  • Torture may be physical or psychological. Important methods of physical torture are :‑

1. Beating : Beating may be of following types  ‑

  1. Falanga (Falolka/Baatinada) : Beating of soles of feet with blunt object.
  2. Telefono : Simultaneous beating of both ears with palms.
  3. Quirofana : Beating on abdomen while upper half of body lying unsupported on table.

2. Electric : Electric torture may be –

  1. Piacana : Placing electric wires in vagina, mouth, anus or over nipples and testis.
  2. Black slave : Heated metal skewer inserted into anus.

3. Near suffocation : These are –

  1. Dry submarine : Plastic bag covering head and face.
  2. Wet submarine (Labaneva/Latina/Pileta): Forced immersion of victim’s head in water, often contaminated with urine or vomit or blood.

4. Suspension : Suspension may be –

  1. La-Bandera : By wrist.
  2. Mercelago : By ankles.

5. Forced posture : It may be

  1. Planton : Prolonged standing.
  2. Cabellete (Saw horse) : Forced struddling of a bar.
  3. Parrot’s perch (Jack/paude Grava) : Head down by a horizontal pole placed under knees, with the wrists bound to the ankles.
  4. Chepuwa : Tight clamping of thighs or legs with bamboo, and the torturer may press two sides of clamps with his legs or may stand on two sides of clamps (practiced on Bhutanese refugees in Nepal).

Q. 12

Tokyo Convention Act of 1975 pertains to‑

 A

MTP

 B

Clinical trial on humans

 C

Women rights

 D

Offences committed on board aircraft

Q. 12

Tokyo Convention Act of 1975 pertains to‑

 A

MTP

 B

Clinical trial on humans

 C

Women rights

 D

Offences committed on board aircraft

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d’ i.e., Offences committed on board aircraft

Tokyo Convention Act 1975

Conventions on offences and certain acts committed while on board aircraft are carried out in India under the Tokyo Convention Act, 1975.

Quiz In Between



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