Sperm Anatomy

SPERM ANATOMY

Q. 1 Daily sperm production is? 
 A

3 million per day

 B 12 million per day 
 C

30 million per day

 D 120 million per 
Q. 1 Daily sperm production is? 
 A

3 million per day

 B 12 million per day 
 C

30 million per day

 D 120 million per 
Ans. D

Explanation:

120 million per day REF: Guyton 11th edition page 999

The two testes of the human adult form up to 120 million sperm each day”

Note:

  • The entire period of spermatogenesis, from spermatogonia to spermatozoa, takes about 74 days.
  • Although sperm can live for many weeks in the suppressed state in the genital ducts of the testes, life expectancy of ejaculated sperm in the female genital tract is only 1 to 2 days.

The two testes of the human adult form up to 120 million sperm each day.


Q. 2

Mitochondria of a sperm is seen in ?

 A

Head

 B

Neck

 C

Body

 D

Tail

Q. 2

Mitochondria of a sperm is seen in ?

 A

Head

 B

Neck

 C

Body

 D

Tail

Ans. C

Explanation:

Mitochondrial granules are seen enveloping the spiral threads around the axial filament present in the body of the sperm.
 
Sperm: The human sperm possesses a head, a neck, a connecting piece or body, and a tail.
  • Head is oval or elliptical, but flattened,its anterior two-thirds are covered by a layer of modified protoplasm, which is named the head-cap, which probably facilitates the, entrance of the spermatozoon into the ovum. The head contains a mass of chromatin, regarded as the nucleus of the cell surrounded by a thin envelope.
  • Neck contains the anterior centriole, it is situated at the junction of the head and neck.
  • Connecting piece or body is rod-like. The posterior centriole is placed at the junction of the body and neck, from this centriole an axial filament runs backward through the body and tail. The sheath of the axial filament is encircled by a spiral thread, around which is an envelope containing mitochondrial granules, and termed the mitochondrial sheath.
  • Tail is of great length, and consists of the axial thread or filament, surrounded by its sheath, but mitochondria is absent.
Ref: Gray’s Anatomy of the Human Body, 20th Edition, Page 756

Q. 3

 Production of spermatozoa is essential to success in reproduction. With respect to the spermatozoa tail structure, what is the unit that is essential for motility?

 A

Tail

 B

Axoneme

 C

Mitochondrial

 D

Energy generating area

Q. 3

 Production of spermatozoa is essential to success in reproduction. With respect to the spermatozoa tail structure, what is the unit that is essential for motility?

 A

Tail

 B

Axoneme

 C

Mitochondrial

 D

Energy generating area

Ans. B

Explanation:

Spermatozoa contain a tail for motility. The structure of the tail or composition of the tail is the axoneme which is composed of several internal structures. The structures are termed dynein outer arm, dynein inner arm, A tubule, B tubule, radial spoke, radial head, central tubule (middle of wheel) and a nexin link between the A and B tubules to give circular appearance (like a spoke wheel). A and B tubules dynein arms are attached to the tubules and project toward the nexin link. The radial spokes jet inward toward the central tubule with the radial head attached to the end of the central tubule. The structure looks like a spoke wheel.
 
Ref: Barrett K.E., Barman S.M., Boitano S., Brooks H.L. (2012). Chapter 23. Function of the Male Reproductive System. In K.E. Barrett, S.M. Barman, S. Boitano, H.L. Brooks (Eds), Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology, 24e.

Q. 4

Spermatogenesis occurs at:

 A

Body temperature

 B

Temperature lower than core body temperature

 C

Temperature higher than core body temperature

 D

Temperature does not play a role

Q. 4

Spermatogenesis occurs at:

 A

Body temperature

 B

Temperature lower than core body temperature

 C

Temperature higher than core body temperature

 D

Temperature does not play a role

Ans. B

Explanation:

Spermatogenesis requires a temperature considerably lower than that of the interior of the body.

Ref: Ganong’s Review of Medical Physiology, 22nd Edition, Page 427; Guyton and Hall – Textbook of Medical Physiology, 10th Edition, Page 920


Q. 5

Length of a mature human spermatozoon is‑

 A

50-60 microns

 B

10-40 microns

 C

100-200 microns

 D

300-500 microns

Q. 5

Length of a mature human spermatozoon is‑

 A

50-60 microns

 B

10-40 microns

 C

100-200 microns

 D

300-500 microns

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. 50- 60 microns


Q. 6

Sperm after formation is stored in

 A

Sertoli cell

 B

Epididymis

 C

Rete testes

 D

Seminal vesicle

Q. 6

Sperm after formation is stored in

 A

Sertoli cell

 B

Epididymis

 C

Rete testes

 D

Seminal vesicle

Ans. B

Explanation:

B. i.e. Epididymis

– Polar body are formed during the process of oogenesis not spermatogenesis

matured and gain motility in epididymis; & capacitation of sperm i.e. removal of acromsomal membrane occurs in female genital tract.

–  Spermatogenesis requires a temperature that is -2°C below the core body temperature.

Spermatozoa are stored in epididymis not seminal vesicle Ducts of seminal vesicle & ductus deferens unite to form an ejaculatory duct, which open in prostatic urethrae


Q. 7

Middle piece of sperm contains ‑

 A

Golgi apparatus

 B

Mitochondria

 C

Lysosome

 D

Ribosome

Q. 7

Middle piece of sperm contains ‑

 A

Golgi apparatus

 B

Mitochondria

 C

Lysosome

 D

Ribosome

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Mitochondria


Q. 8

Acrosome cap of sperm is derived from ‑

 A

Golgi body

 B

Mitochondria

 C

Nucleus

 D

Centromere

Q. 8

Acrosome cap of sperm is derived from ‑

 A

Golgi body

 B

Mitochondria

 C

Nucleus

 D

Centromere

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Golgi body

Formation of acrosome starts with the coalescence of a series of granules from the Golgi complex, which migrates to come into contact with nuclear membrane, where it covers like a cap-like structure ove 30% to 50% of nuclear surface.

The acrosome covers the nucleus and contains the hydrolytic enzymes necessary for fertilization.

`The head also contains the acrosome, which is a cap-like structure represented by golgi complex and covers about two thirds of anterior head area’     Clinical reproductive medicine.


Q. 9

The analysis shown in the picture below measures which among the following factors of sperm health ? 

 A

The number of sperm.

 B

The shape of the sperm.

 C

The movement of the sperm.

 D

All of the above.

Q. 9

The analysis shown in the picture below measures which among the following factors of sperm health ? 

 A

The number of sperm.

 B

The shape of the sperm.

 C

The movement of the sperm.

 D

All of the above.

Ans. D

Explanation:

Semen analysis, also known as a sperm count test, analyzes the health and viability of a man’s sperm. Semen is the fluid containing sperm (plus other sugar and protein substances) that’s released during male ejaculation. A semen analysis measures three major factors of sperm health:

  • the number of sperm
  • the shape of the sperm
  • the movement of the sperm, also known as “sperm motility”.

Q. 10

 Spermatic structure  (marked with B ) shown in the photograph is 

 A

 Head 

 B

 Neck 

 C

 Middle piece 

 D

. End piece

Q. 10

 Spermatic structure  (marked with B ) shown in the photograph is 

 A

 Head 

 B

 Neck 

 C

 Middle piece 

 D

. End piece

Ans. C

Explanation:

Middle piece (Description: Contains mitochondria)



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