Tag: Agents/Diseases

Bioterrorism Agent

Bioterrorism Agent


DEFINIITION:

  • Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents. 
  • These agents are bacteria, viruses, fungi, or toxins, and may be in a naturally occurring or a human-modified form, in much the same way in biological warfare.
  • Sentinel laboratories are mainly involved in Control of Bioterrorism

Category A

Definition

The U.S. public health system and primary healthcare providers must be prepared to address various biological agents, including pathogens that are rarely seen in the United States. High-priority agents include organisms that pose a risk to national security because they

  • Can be easily disseminated or transmitted from person to person;
  • Result in high mortality rates and have the potential for major public health impact;
  • Might cause public panic and social disruption; and
  • Require special action for public health preparedness.

Agents/Diseases

  • Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
  • Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin)
  • Plague (Yersinia pestis)(highest potential)
  • pox (variola major)
  • Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers, including
    • Filoviruses (Ebola, Marburg)
    • Arenaviruses (Lassa, Machupo)

Category B

Definition

Second highest priority agents include those that

  • Are moderately easy to disseminate;
  • Result in moderate morbidity rates and low mortality rates; and
  • Require specific enhancements of CDC’s diagnostic capacity and enhanced disease surveillance.

Agents/Diseases

  • Brucellosis (Brucella species)
  • Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens
  • Food safety threats (Salmonella species, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Shigella)
  • Glanders (Burkholderia mallei)
  • Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei)
  • Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)
  • Q fever (Coxiella burnetii)
  • Ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor beans)
  • Staphylococcal enterotoxin B
  • Typhus fever (Rickettsia prowazekii)
  • Viral encephalitis (alphaviruses, such as eastern equine encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and western equine encephalitis])
  • Water safety threats (Vibrio choleraeCryptosporidium parvum)

Category C

Definition

Third highest priority agents include emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future because of

  • Availability;
  • Ease of production and dissemination; and
  • Potential for high morbidity and mortality rates and major health impact.

Agents

  • Emerging infectious diseases such as Nipah virus and hantavirus

Exam Important

Sentinel laboratories are mainly involved in Control of Bioterrorism

Category A bioterrorism agents are Ebola, Small pox, Botulism, Hemorrhagic fever, Yersinia & Clostridium botulinum

Cholera belongs to category-B of bioterrorism 

Plague carries the highest potential for use as biological weapons for microbial bioterrorism

B. anthracis is an Agent for bioterrorism

Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Bioterrorism Agent

Module Below Start Quiz

Bioterrorism Agent

Bioterrorism Agent

Q. 1 Sentinel laboratories are mainly involved in:

 A

External Quality Assessment of laboratories

 B

Diagnosis of HIV infection

 C

Control of Bioterrorism

 D

Diagnosis of Tuberculosis

Q. 1

Sentinel laboratories are mainly involved in:

 A

External Quality Assessment of laboratories

 B

Diagnosis of HIV infection

 C

Control of Bioterrorism

 D

Diagnosis of Tuberculosis

Ans. C

Explanation:

Because communication between clinical and public health laboratories is so critical in the post-2001 era, Centre for Disease Control (CDC) created an organizational structure whereby isolates and lines of communication flow freely among numbers.
The Laboratory Response Network (LRN) was originally designed as a four-tier system. Clinical laboratories (Level A) were at the bottom of a triangle, sending specimens to a public health laboratory (level B) or Level C (state public health laboratory) for confirmation.
Isolates were ultimately sent to CDC or United States Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases (USMRIID)-Level D, for archiving ang sophisticated molecular testing.
This original system has now been changed to a three-tier system in which Level A laboratories are now called Sentinel laboratories; Level B & C laboratories are called Reference laboratories & Level D are called National laboratories.
 
The main role of Sentinel Microbiology laboratories is to raise suspicion when a targeted agent is suspected in a human specimen. Detection of a possible bioterrorism event will depend on:
  •  A laboratory having an active microbial surveillance and monitoring program
  •  Vigilant technologists looking for a disease that does not occur naturally in a particular geographic region (eg: Plague in New York city); is transmitted by an aerosol route of infection; is a single case of disease caused by an unusual agent (eg: Burkholderia mallei usually only seen in the far east); Good communication with infection control practitioners, infectious disease Physicians and local or regional public health laboratories.
Ref: Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology; 12th edition; Page: 954-955

Q. 2

Category A bioterrorism agents are-(

 A

Ebola

 B

Yersinia

 C

Clostridium botulinum

 D

All

Q. 2

Category A bioterrorism agents are-(

 A

Ebola

 B

Yersinia

 C

Clostridium botulinum

 D

All

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Ebola, ‘b’ i.e. Yersinia, ‘c’ i.e. C. botulinum

Bioterrorism

.    A bioterrorism attack is the delibrate release of viruses, bacteria or other germs ( agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals or plants. These agents are typically found in nature, but it is possible that they could be changed to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment. Biological agents can be spread through the air, through water or in food. Terrorists may use biological agents because they can be extermely difficult to detect and do not cause illness for several hours to several days. Some bioterrorism agents, like the small pox virus, can be spread from person to person and some like anthrax, cannot.

Bioterrorism agent categories

Category A

.   These high priority agents include organisms or toxins that pose the highest risk to the public and national security because:

i)         They can be easily spread or transmitted from person to person.

ii)       They result in high death rates and have potential for major public health impact.

iii)      They might cause public panic and social disruption.

iv)     They require special action for public health preparedness.

Category B

.  These agents are second highest priority because:

i)         They are moderately easy to spread.

ii)       They result in moderate illness rates and low death rates.

iii)      They require specific enhancements of CDC’s laboratory capacity and enhanced disease monitoring. Category C

.    These third highest priority agents include emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass spread in the future because:

i)         They are easily available.

ii)       They are easily produced and spread.

iii)      They have potential for high morbidity and mortality rates and major health impact.

CDC Category A, B, and C Agents

Category A

Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)

Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin)

Plague (Yersinia pestis)

Smallpox (Variola major)

Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)

Viral hemorrhagic fevers

Arenaviruses : Lassa, New World (Machupo, Junin, Guanarito, and Sabia)

Bunyaviridae : Crimean Congo, Rift Valley

Filoviridae : Ebola, Marburg

Flaviviridae : Yellow fever; Omsk fever; Kyasanur Forest Category B

Brucellosis (Brucella spp.)

Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens

Food safety threats (e.g., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Shigella)

Glanders (Burkholderia mallei)

Melioidosis (B. pseudomallei)

Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)

Q fever (Coxiella burnetii)

Ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor beans)

Staphylococcal enterotoxin B

Typhus fever (Rickettsia prowazekii)

Viral encephalitis [alphaviruses (e.g., Venezuelan, eastern, and western equine encephalitis)]

Water safety threats (e.g. Vibrio cholerae, Cryptosporidium parvum) Category C

Emerging infectious diseases threats such as Nipah, hantavirus, and SARS coronoavirus.


Q. 3 Which of the following is not a group A bioterrorism agent –

 A

Small pox

 B

Hemorrhagic fever

 C

Salmonella

 D

Botulism

Q. 3

Which of the following is not a group A bioterrorism agent –

 A

Small pox

 B

Hemorrhagic fever

 C

Salmonella

 D

Botulism

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Salmonella

   Salmonella belongs to CDC category B.

Quiz In Between


Q. 4 Which of the following belongs to category-B of bioterrorism –

 A

Cholera

 B

Anthrox

 C

Plague

 D

Botulism

Q. 4

Which of the following belongs to category-B of bioterrorism –

 A

Cholera

 B

Anthrox

 C

Plague

 D

Botulism

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Cholera


Q. 5

Which amongst the following biological agents carries the highest potential for use as biological weapons for microbial bioterrorism:    
September 2012

 A

Plague (Yersinia pestis)

 B

Small pox (Variola major)

 C

Botulism (Cl. botulinum)

 D

Brucellosis (Brucella sp.)

Q. 5

Which amongst the following biological agents carries the highest potential for use as biological weapons for microbial bioterrorism:    
September 2012

 A

Plague (Yersinia pestis)

 B

Small pox (Variola major)

 C

Botulism (Cl. botulinum)

 D

Brucellosis (Brucella sp.)

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans: A i.e. Plague (Yersinia pestis)

Bacterial pathogens and their products are potential agents of biological terrorism and biological warfare. These agents can be deployed through simple aerosol delivery systems and thereby cause widespread disease and death.

Category A: Category A agents are the highest-priority pathogens. They pose the greatest risk to national security. They include:

  • Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
  • Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin)
  • Plague (Yersinia pestis)
  • Smallpox (Variola major)
  • Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers
  • Arenaviruses: Lassa, New World (Machupo, Junin, Guanarito, and Sabia)
  • Bunyaviridae: Crimean Congo, Rift Valley
  • Filoviridae: Ebola, Marburg

Q. 6 Bioterrorism is associated with all, except  
UP 12

 A

Clostridia

 B

Chicken pox

 C

Plague

 D

Ebola virus

Q. 6

Bioterrorism is associated with all, except  
UP 12

 A

Clostridia

 B

Chicken pox

 C

Plague

 D

Ebola virus

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. Chicken pox

Quiz In Between


Q. 7

In the list of bioterrorism which of the following belongs to category A ‑

 A

Plague

 B

Brucella

 C

SARS

 D

E. coli 157: H7

Q. 7

In the list of bioterrorism which of the following belongs to category A ‑

 A

Plague

 B

Brucella

 C

SARS

 D

E. coli 157: H7

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Plague

Bioterrorism

  • A bioterrorism attack is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs (agents) used to cause illness or death in people, or plants. These agents are typically found in nature, but it is possible that they could be changed to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicine, or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment. Biological agents can be spread through the air, through water, or in food. Terrorists may use biological agents because they can be extremely difficult to detect and do not cause illness for several hours to several days. Some bioterrorism agents, like the smallpox virus, can be spread from person to person and some, like anthrax, can not.

Bioterrorism Agent Categories

  • Bioterrorism agents can be separated into three categories, depending on how easily they can be spread and the severity of illness or death they cause. Category A agents are considered the highest risk and Category C agents are those that are considered emerging threats for disease.

Category A

  • These high-priority agents include organisms or toxins that pose the highest risk to the public and national security because:
  1. They can be easily spread or transmitted from person to person
  2. They result in high death rates and have the potential for major public health impact.
  3. They might cause public panic and social disruption
  4. They require special action for public health preparedness.

Category B

  • These agetns are the second highest priority because
  1. They are moderately easy to spread
  2. They result in moderate illness rates and low death rates
  3. They require specific enhancements of CDC’s laboratory capacity and enhanced disease monitoring. Category C
  • These third highest priority agents include emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass spread in the future because:
  1. They are easily available
  2. They are easily produced and spread
  3. They have potential for high morbidity and mortality rates and major health impact.

Q. 8 Which among the following is true about the micro-organism shown in the photomicrograph above? 

 A

Zoonotic disease.

 B

Man to man transmission possible.

 C

Agent for bioterrorism.

 D

a and c

Q. 8

Which among the following is true about the micro-organism shown in the photomicrograph above? 

 A

Zoonotic disease.

 B

Man to man transmission possible.

 C

Agent for bioterrorism.

 D

a and c

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans:D.)Zoonotic Disease and Agent for terrorism.
The micro-organism shown in the photomicrograph above is Bacillus anthracis.

Anthrax

  • It is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis
  • It is primarily a disease of herbivorous – goats, sheep, cattle, horses etc.
  • Human become infected incidentally by contact with infected animals or their products.
  • B. anthracis is among the category A pathogens (ie the highest priority pathogens) for bioterrorism.
  • Antibiotic therapy is effective in humans, and ciprofloxacin is recommended for the treatment. For prophylaxis ciprofloxacin or doxycycline should be given.
  • Bacillus anthracis is very large, Gram-positive, spore-forming rod .
  • Microscopic Features:The cells have characteristic squared ends. The endospores are ellipsoidal shaped and located centrally in the sporangium. The spores are highly refractile to light and resistant to staining.
  • Mc Fadyean’s reaction is characteristic of Bacillus anthracis.

Quiz In Between



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