Tag: Autism

Autism-Signs, Symptoms & Management


Autism-Signs, Symptoms & Management


Autistic signs & symptoms:

Interacting with others-

  • Little interest in interacting with other people or children of same age group (Lack of social reciprocity)
  • Preferring to play alone
  • Lack social smile.
  • Avoiding eye contact
  • Being unusually intolerant of people entering their own personal space
  • Rarely using gestures or facial expressions when communicating.

Responding to others-

  • Rejecting cuddles initiated by a parent or caregiver
  • Reacting unusually negatively
  • Not responding to their name being called.

Spoken language-

  • Delayed speech development, or not speaking at all
  • Frequent repetition of set words and phrases
  • Preferring to communicate using single words
  • Significant delay in language milestones.
  • Speech that sounds very monotonous.

Behavioral changes-

  • Repetitive movements – Stereotyped behaviors (hand wringing, spinning & banging).
  • Have a familiar routine – On disturbance exhibit excessive reaction.
  • Strong like or dislike of certain foods with unusual sensory interests.

Management:

  • No “cure” for ASD – Mainly supportive management usually early intervention needed.
  • Speech & language therapy
  • Cognitive behavior therapy.
  • Joint attention therapy.
  • Behavioral management therapy.
  • Nutritional therapy.
  • Educational and school-based therapies.
  • Occupational therapy.

Autism-Basics


Autism-Basics


Description-

  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is range of similar conditions including Asperger syndrome.
  • Affects person’s social interaction, communication, interests & behavior.
  • In children – ASD symptoms seen before 3 yrs., yet diagnosis can be made after 3yrs of age.

Features of autism: Spoken language, behaviour, interaction with others

Autism

Autism


INTRODUCTION:

  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the name for a range of similar conditions, including Asperger syndrome, that affect a person’s social interaction, communication, interests and behaviour.
  • In children with ASD, the symptoms are present before three years of age, although a diagnosis can sometimes be made after the age of three.
  • There’s no “cure” for ASD, but speech and language therapy, occupational therapy, educational support, plus a number of other interventions are available to help children and parents.

Signs of ASD:

Spoken language

  • Delayed speech development , or not speaking at all
  • Frequent repetition of set words and phrases
  • Speech that sounds very monotonous.
  • Preferring to communicate using single words

Responding to others

  • Not responding to their name being called.
  • Rejecting cuddles initiated by a parent or carer
  • Reacting unusually negatively

Interacting with others

  • Being unusually intolerant of people entering their own personal space
  • Little interest in interacting with other people or children of same age group(Lack of social reciprocity)
  • Preferring to play alone
  • Rarely using gestures or facial expressions when communicating
  • Avoiding eye contact

Behaviour

  • Repetitive movements.
  • Have a familiar routine 
  • Strong like or dislike of certain foods
  • Unusual sensory interests 

DIAGNOSIS:

  • Psychologist – a healthcare professional with a psychology degree, plus further training and qualifications in psychology
  • Psychiatrist – a medically qualified doctor with further training in psychiatry
  • Paediatrician – a doctor who specialises in treating children
  • Speech and language therapist – a specialist in recognising and treating communication problems

TREATMENT:

  • Behavioral management therapy.
  • Cognitive behavior therapy.
  • Early intervention.
  • Educational and school-based therapies.
  • Joint attention therapy.
  • Medication treatment.
  • Nutritional therapy.
  • Occupational therapy
Exam Question
 
  • Developed Isolated area of talent ,No attribution of Parental attitude and behavior & delayed Emergence of speech and social smile is often suggestive of childhood autism 
  • A 5-year-old boy with normal motor skills has severe language delay, shows no interest in interacting with other children or with adults, and spends a lot of time spinning around. The most likely diagnosis for this child is Infantile autism
  • A 3 year old child presents with developmental delayed in speech. He has difficulty in communication and social interactions. His teachers and parents are worried that he is not making any friends. He is observed to have unusual routines and repetitive activities is diagnosed to have autism.
  • The parents of a 4-year-old girl Mili is worried that she is isolating herself from people. She seems to be deeply involved in her own games and keeping her toys in a particular order. She does not speak full sentences yet. All other developmental milestones were normal. She does not leave parents when she is taken out to a party or shopping. She finds it difficult to concentrate on reading and has not managed to write alphabets is diagnosed to have autism.
  • A 6-year-old boy is observed to be peculiar by his teacher. Children attempt to play with him but his response is to either ignore them or get angry at their advances. This response in someone with autism might best be described as Lack of social reciprocity.
  • Autism  Starts before 2-3 years of age
  • Autism is Social and language communication problem
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Autism

Autism

AUTISM

Q. 1 False regarding childhood autism is:
 A Isolated area of talent may be remarkable developed’
 B Parental attitude and behavior do not attribute to it
 C Emergence of speech and social smile is often delayed
 D It represents a type of childhood neurotic disorder
Q. 1 False regarding childhood autism is:
 A Isolated area of talent may be remarkable developed’
 B Parental attitude and behavior do not attribute to it
 C Emergence of speech and social smile is often delayed
 D It represents a type of childhood neurotic disorder
Ans. D

Explanation:

AUTISM includes mental retardation, learning disability, communication disorder and attention deficit disorders. Autism is not a disease. It is one of the developmental disorders of the brain function. Its cause is not known in majority of cases but unlike other developmental disabilities, prenatal and perinatal factors do not playa major role in its etiology. Clinical features are speech and language delay, impairment of comprehension of language, fluent but unintelligible jargon, impairment of social interaction, hyperactivity, unusual interest in TV commercials, repetitive compulsive play activity, etc. Seizures are more common in autistic children than in general population. Some autistic children have islands of brilliance.


Q. 2 A 5-year-old boy with normal motor skills has severe language delay, shows no interest in interacting with other children or with adults, and spends a lot of time spinning around. The most likely diagnosis for this child is
 A Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
 B Rett syndrome
 C Conduct disorder        
 D Infantile autism
Q. 2 A 5-year-old boy with normal motor skills has severe language delay, shows no interest in interacting with other children or with adults, and spends a lot of time spinning around. The most likely diagnosis for this child is
 A Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
 B Rett syndrome
 C Conduct disorder        
 D Infantile autism
Ans. D

Explanation:

The most likely diagnosis for this 5-year-old boy with normal motor skills, severe language delay, and stereo typical spinning movements who shows no interest in interacting with others is infantile autism, a pervasive developmental disorder of childhood. In contrast, children      with   attention   deficit   hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show problems paying attention or with excessive activity but not  language delay. Children with conduct disorder show behaviors like stealing, truancy, and setting fires. Mentally retarded children may have language delay but interact with others in a relatively normal fashion. Rett syndrome,   which   involves   some    behavioral

 

features of infantile autism such as stereotypical movements, is seen only in girls.

 


Q. 3 All are true about autism EXCEPT: 
 A Age between 18-24 months 
 B Child is able to interact
 C Repetitive behavior is seen
 D Language is not well developed
Q. 3 All are true about autism EXCEPT: 
 A Age between 18-24 months 
 B Child is able to interact
 C Repetitive behavior is seen
 D Language is not well developed
Ans. B

Explanation:

Child is able to interact

REF: Kaplan & Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry 10th Edition p. 1194, Current Diagnosis & Treatment in Psychiatry Chapter 37

Major Diagnostic Features of Dsm-iv Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Feature

Autistic

Disorder

Asperger’s

Disorder

Childhood

Disintegrative

Disorder

Rett’s

Disorder

Pervasive

Developmental

Disorder NOS

Social impairment

+

+

 

+

+

Language or communication

disorder

+

 

+

+

+

Repetitive interests and activities

+

+

+

+

+

Onset prior to 36 months

+

 

 

+

 


Q. 4 A girl with normal milestones spend her time seeing her own hand, do not interact with others, what is the diagnosis ?
 A

ADHD

 B

Autism

 C

Schizophrenia

 D

Depression

Q. 4 A girl with normal milestones spend her time seeing her own hand, do not interact with others, what is the diagnosis ?
 A

ADHD

 B

Autism

 C

Schizophrenia

 D

Depression

Ans. B

Explanation:

Autism [Ref. Harrison 16th/e p 1082]

  • Prevasive developmental disorder includes the following condition :­- Autism

– Rett’s disorder

– Asperger’s disorder

– Childhood disintegrative disorder

Pervasive disorders not otherwise specified

Pervasive development disorders are characterized by three symptom clusters?

i) Impairment in social reciprocity marked by poor eye contact, lack of interest in other people and failure to interact appropriately with others.

ii) Communicative impairment, it is characterized by either no language at all or by deviant speech with errors in tone, prosody, pitch, grammar, or pragmatics.

iii) Restricted and repetitive behaviours include using the same words and phrases repeatedly out of context, performing the same action in routine ways or insisting that others do so, or exhibiting other vocal or visual self stimulatory behaviours.Stereotype movements are seen.

Stereotype movements are apparently purposeless movements such as hand flapping, head rolling or body rocking.)

Now, the salient feature of each pervasive disorder:

Autistic disorder

  • It gives all the classical features of pervasive developmental disorder.
  • The patient presents with problems in social interaction, communication and repetitive sterotype behaviour.
  • In most of these patients there is subnormal intelligence.

Example

  • A 3 year old boy shows no interest in or connection to his parents, other adults or children. He does not speak voluntarily and is fascinated with watching rotating objects. He screams fiercely when his environment is altered in any way such as when his mother tries to dress him.

Rett’s disorder

  • It is seen exclusively in females.
  • The characteristic feature of these patients is that they begin to lose their acquired skills.

Example

  • After 4 months of normal development, an infant begins to lose her acquired skills. By 18 months of age, she shows little social interaction with her parents, other adults or children and she uses strange hand gestures. Asperger’s disorder
  • The important point in differential diagnosis of these patients is that they have normal intelligence. These are the only pervasive development disorders in which the intelligence is unimpaired.
  • These patients often have some exceptional ability.
  • They have little or no developmental language delay and relatively normal cognitive development.
  • In the question the lack of social interaction and communication along with stereotypic behaviour (watching her own hard) suggests Autistic disorder.
  • The patient does not give any symptoms of attention deficit disorder i.e. there are no symptoms indicating lack of concentration and hyperactivity.
  • The patients of ADHD can also present with symptoms similar to pervasive developmental disorder but the main complaint will always be that of attention deficit and hyperactivity.
  • Patients with depression should give other features of depression. 200. Ans is (I)) i.e. Serotonin [Ref Internet Reference]
  • Suicide is caused by diminished serotonin level
  • Serotonin is a hormone that acts as neurotransmitter.
  • Serotonin levels in our body affects a wide range of mental and physical responses and plays a significant role in activities such as temperature regulation, longer sensations, ,sexual behaviour and sleep patterns.
  • Serotonin receptors also help to regulate emotions, cognition, pain and sensory motor function.
  • Serotonin deficiencies can give rise to wide range of illnesses depending on the part of the brain that is affected.
  • Other neurotransmitters may send the message that we are full but serotonin level determines if we are satisfied.
  • Low serotonin levels in the brain are linked to clinical depression, suicidal tendencies, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive behaviours (such as builimia), schizophrenia sleep problems, migraine, headaches, autism, drug and alcohol addiction, Alzhiemer’s diseases and patterns of violent behaviour.
  • “Diminished central serotonin plays a role in suicidal behaviour. A group at the karolinska institute was the first to note that low concentrations of the serotonin metabolite 5 Hydroxy indoleacetic acid (5HIAA) in the lumbar cerebro spinal fluid (CSF) were associated with suicidal behaviour.”
  • This finding has been replicated many times and in different diagnostic groups.
  • Postmortem neurochemical studies have reported modest decrease in serotonin itself or 5HIAA, in either the brain stem or frontal cortex of suicide victims.
  • Post mortem receptor studies have reported significant changes in presynaptic and postsynaptic serotonin binding sites in suicide victims.

Q. 5

A 3 year old boy with normal developmental milestones with delayed speech and difficulty in communication and concentration. He is not making friends. Most probable diagnosis is

 A

Autism

 B

ADHD

 C

Mental retardation

 D

Specific learning disability

Q. 5

A 3 year old boy with normal developmental milestones with delayed speech and difficulty in communication and concentration. He is not making friends. Most probable diagnosis is

 A

Autism

 B

ADHD

 C

Mental retardation

 D

Specific learning disability

Ans. A

Explanation:

Autism [Ref Ghai 6th/e p 65, C.P.D.T. 18thie p 186, 187]

“Difficulty in concentration and communication, delayed speech and problems in fonning social relationship in early childhood suggests the diagnosis of Autism”

Essentials of Diagnosis and Typical Features of Autism

  • Onset in infancy or early childhood (before age of 3 years)
  • Abnormal language and speech development (Abnormal communication)

– Inability to develop normal social skill (lack of eye contact gestures and facial expression)

– Understand little or no language (therefore fail to acquire speech)

– Deficient comprehension and communicative use of speech and gesture.

  • Bahavioural peculiarities such as ritualized repetitive or stereotyped behaviour and rigidity.
  • Difficulty in concentration
  • Severe deficit in social responsiveness and interpersonal skills

– Intrusive sterotypes (Repetitive behaviour) together with inability to concentrate may prevent children from engaging in meaningful activity or social interaction (difficulty in making friends)

– Do not engage in pretended play (which starts before age of 2 in normal children)

Also know

  • About 75% of children with autism are mentally retarded
  • Epilepsy develops in one fifth to one third of autistic individuals.
  • EEG abnormalities are noted in half of the patients.

Q. 6

The following are characteristic of autism, EXCEPT:

 A

Onset after 6 years of age

 B

Repetitive behavior

 C

Delayed language development

 D

Severe deficit in social interaction

Q. 6

The following are characteristic of autism, EXCEPT:

 A

Onset after 6 years of age

 B

Repetitive behavior

 C

Delayed language development

 D

Severe deficit in social interaction

Ans. A

Explanation:

The onset of autistic disorder always occurs before age 3, at two peak periods.

Autistic disorders are characterized by the triad of impaired social interaction, communication and imagination. These are associated with rigid repetitive pattern of behaviour.

Ref: Essential Pediatrics By O P Ghai, 6th Edition, Page 65; Autism: A Very Short Introduction By Uta Frith, 2008, Preview.


Q. 7

A 3 year old child presents with developmental delayed in speech. He has difficulty in communication and social interactions. His teachers and parents are worried that he is not making any friends. He is observed to have unusual routines and repetitive activities. What is the likely diagnosis?

 A

Autism

 B

ADHD

 C

Specific learning disability

 D

Mental retardation

Q. 7

A 3 year old child presents with developmental delayed in speech. He has difficulty in communication and social interactions. His teachers and parents are worried that he is not making any friends. He is observed to have unusual routines and repetitive activities. What is the likely diagnosis?

 A

Autism

 B

ADHD

 C

Specific learning disability

 D

Mental retardation

Ans. A

Explanation:

Difficulty in communication, delayed speech, obsessiveness and problems in forming social relatonships in early childhood suggests the diagnosis of autism.
The triad of autism include communication difficulties, repetitive or obsessional behaviours and difficulties in social interactions.
 
Ref: Essentials of Pediatrics by O P Ghai 6th Edition, Page 65; CPDT 18th Edition, Page 186,187

Q. 8

A four year old boy Tinu has normal developmental milestones except delayed speech. He is interested to watch spinning objects like fan and the washing machine. His parents struggle to get him interested in other children at home. People often comment that he is disinterested and self centred. What will be your thought regarding his diagnosis?

 A

Autism Spectrum Disorder

 B

Sibling Rivalry

 C

Mental retardation

 D

Specific learning disability

Q. 8

A four year old boy Tinu has normal developmental milestones except delayed speech. He is interested to watch spinning objects like fan and the washing machine. His parents struggle to get him interested in other children at home. People often comment that he is disinterested and self centred. What will be your thought regarding his diagnosis?

 A

Autism Spectrum Disorder

 B

Sibling Rivalry

 C

Mental retardation

 D

Specific learning disability

Ans. A

Explanation:

Tinu’s presentation is that of poor ‘theory of mind’ or lack of perspective taking, poor communication and social skills and obsessive interests in spinning objects, which is common in ASD (autism spectrum disorder).

Autism is characterized by triad of impaired social development, disturbed communication and language and presence of stereotypes.

Ref: The Biology of the Autistic Syndromes By Christopher Gillberg, Mary Coleman, 2000, Page 25


Q. 9

The parents of a 4-year-old girl Mili is worried that she is isolating herself from people. She seems to be deeply involved in her own games and keeping her toys in a particular order. She does not speak full sentences yet. All other developmental milestones were normal. She does not leave parents when she is taken out to a party or shopping. She finds it difficult to concentrate on reading and has not managed to write alphabets. Which of the following is the likely diagnosis?

 A

Attention Deficit Disorder

 B

Childhood Depression

 C

Autism Spectrum Disorder

 D

Dyslexia and Dyspraxia

Q. 9

The parents of a 4-year-old girl Mili is worried that she is isolating herself from people. She seems to be deeply involved in her own games and keeping her toys in a particular order. She does not speak full sentences yet. All other developmental milestones were normal. She does not leave parents when she is taken out to a party or shopping. She finds it difficult to concentrate on reading and has not managed to write alphabets. Which of the following is the likely diagnosis?

 A

Attention Deficit Disorder

 B

Childhood Depression

 C

Autism Spectrum Disorder

 D

Dyslexia and Dyspraxia

Ans. C

Explanation:

In the above question, the child has persistent and pervasive symptoms of social withdrawal or poor social skills, obsessive nature and unusual routines and poor communication skills e.g. late language development. Poor fine motor skills leads to difficulty in writing.

The condition cannot be considered as a depression because the child is happy in her own activities.

Due to the accompanying social and communication difficulties, it cannot be considered as dyslexia or dyspraxia.

Hence the diagnosis is Autism Spectrum Disorder which is a triad of social difficulties, communication difficulties and obsessional symptoms.


Q. 10

A 3 year old girl with normal developmental milestones except that she started speaking by the age of four. She does not play with other children and wants to eat, play and sleep in her own way. She often has temper tantrums related to any new changes. What is the likely diagnosis?

 A

ADHD

 B

Autism

 C

Specific learning disorder

 D

Mental retardation

Q. 10

A 3 year old girl with normal developmental milestones except that she started speaking by the age of four. She does not play with other children and wants to eat, play and sleep in her own way. She often has temper tantrums related to any new changes. What is the likely diagnosis?

 A

ADHD

 B

Autism

 C

Specific learning disorder

 D

Mental retardation

Ans. B

Explanation:

Autism is charecterised by a developmental delay in speech, communication difficulties, lack of social skills, difficulty in coping with change, rigid preferences and routines which is pervasive and persistent from childhood.


Q. 11

A 6-year-old boy is observed to be peculiar by his teacher. Children attempt to play with him but his response is to either ignore them or get angry at their advances. This response in someone with autism might best be described as which of the following?

 A

Stereotyped behavior

 B

Lack of social reciprocity

 C

Poor language development

 D

Obsessional thinking

Q. 11

A 6-year-old boy is observed to be peculiar by his teacher. Children attempt to play with him but his response is to either ignore them or get angry at their advances. This response in someone with autism might best be described as which of the following?

 A

Stereotyped behavior

 B

Lack of social reciprocity

 C

Poor language development

 D

Obsessional thinking

Ans. B

Explanation:

The child’s lack of response, and then inappropriate response to the social advances of his peers might best be considered a symptom of impairment of social reciprocity.
Social reciprocity involves the appropriate sensing and then interpretation of verbal and nonverbal social cues that guide our interactions.
 
Three core deficits in Autism are:
  • Qualitative impairments in communication
  • Qualitative impairments in reciprocal social interaction
  • Presence of stereotypic, restrictive, and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities.
Ref: Goldson E., Reynolds A. (2012). Chapter 3. Child Development & Behavior. In W.W. Hay, Jr., M.J. Levin, R.R. Deterding, J.J. Ross, J.M. Sondheimer (Eds), CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Pediatrics, 21e.

Q. 12

True about Autism:

 A

Persistent delusion

 B

Incordinate social interaction

 C

Defective reciprocal interaction

 D

B and C both

Q. 12

True about Autism:

 A

Persistent delusion

 B

Incordinate social interaction

 C

Defective reciprocal interaction

 D

B and C both

Ans. D

Explanation:

B, C i.e. Incordinate social interaction, Defective reciprocal interaction


Q. 13

Infantile autism is characterizedby‑

 A

Impaired vision

 B

Impaired neurobehavioral development

 C

A socioeconomic hazard

 D

B & C

Q. 13

Infantile autism is characterizedby‑

 A

Impaired vision

 B

Impaired neurobehavioral development

 C

A socioeconomic hazard

 D

B & C

Ans. D

Explanation:

B, C i.e. Impaired neurobehavioral development, A socioeconomic hazard


Q. 14

Autism is :

 A

Neurodevelopmental disorder

 B

Social and language communication problem

 C

Metabolic disease

 D

Mainly due to hypothalamus damage

Q. 14

Autism is :

 A

Neurodevelopmental disorder

 B

Social and language communication problem

 C

Metabolic disease

 D

Mainly due to hypothalamus damage

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. Social &language communication problem


Q. 15

True about autism –

 A

Occurs in high economic striata

 B

Normal communication

 C

Starts before 2-3 years of age

 D

More common in girls

Q. 15

True about autism –

 A

Occurs in high economic striata

 B

Normal communication

 C

Starts before 2-3 years of age

 D

More common in girls

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Starts before 2-3 years of age

Autism

o Autism is a neurologic disroder characterized by ‑

Qualitative impairment in social interaction

  1. Qualitative impairment in communication.
  2. Restricted repetitive and streotyped patterns of behaviour, interests, and activities.
  • Onset of symptoms is usually before 3 years of age.
  • 3-5 times more common in boys, but more severe when occurs in girls.

o More common among low socio-economic groups.

Clinical features

  • Impairment in communication

         Impairment in social interaction

         Inability to concentrate

         Restricted repetitive and streotypes patterns of behaviour, interests and activities.

         Failure to acquire speech.

         Approximately 75% of children with autism are mentally retarded.

         Epilepsy develops in approximately one-fifth to one-third individuals.

Half of autistic patients have abnormalties on EEG.


Q. 16

True regarding autism is:

September 2009

 A

A metabolic disorder

 B

Caused due to teratogenic drugs

 C

Impaired reciprocal social and interpersonal interaction

 D

Neurodevelopmental disorder

Q. 16

True regarding autism is:

September 2009

 A

A metabolic disorder

 B

Caused due to teratogenic drugs

 C

Impaired reciprocal social and interpersonal interaction

 D

Neurodevelopmental disorder

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. C: Impaired reciprocal social and interpersonal interaction

Autism is characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, and by restricted and repetitive behavior. These signs all begin before a child is three years old.

Autism affects information processing in the brain by altering how nerve cells and their synapses connect and organize

It is one of three recognized disorders in the autism spectrum, the other two being Asperger syndrome, which lacks delays in cognitive development and language, and pervasive developmental Disorder-not otherwise specified (commonly abbreviated as PDD-NOS), which is diagnosed when the full set of criteria for autism or Asperger syndrome are not met.


Q. 17

Symbol shown in photograph is related to which disorder?

 A

Alcoholism

 B

Depression

 C

Substance use disorders

 D

Autism

Q. 17

Symbol shown in photograph is related to which disorder?

 A

Alcoholism

 B

Depression

 C

Substance use disorders

 D

Autism

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans:D.)Autism.

Autism

  • It is a neurodevelopmental disorder 
  • Three core deficits in Autism are:
  • Qualitative impairments in communication
  • Qualitative impairments in reciprocal social interaction
  • Presence of stereotypic, restrictive, and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, and activities..
  • The onset of autistic disorder always occurs before age 3 years.
  • Language develops slowly or not at all.
  • Inability to concentrate.
  • Social interaction and communication is very poor.
  • There is no eye contact or smile.
  • Approximately 75% of children with autism are mentally retarded.
  • Epilepsy develops in approximately one-fifth to one-third individuals.

Pervasive developmental disorders

  • It refers to a group of disorders characterized by delays in the development of multiple basic functions including socialization and communication.
  • The pervasive developmental disorders are:
    • Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), which includes atypical autism, and is the most common
    • Autism, the best-known;
    • Asperger syndrome (9% of autism diagnoses);
    • Rett syndrome; and
    • Childhood disintegrative disorder 

Q. 18

Which of the following is not seen in autism?

 A

2/3rd patients are mentally retarded

 B

Poor eye contact

 C

Language is impaired

 D

Abnormal dermatoglyphics

Q. 18

Which of the following is not seen in autism?

 A

2/3rd patients are mentally retarded

 B

Poor eye contact

 C

Language is impaired

 D

Abnormal dermatoglyphics

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. d. Abnormal dermatoglyphics



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