Tag: CNS DEPRESSANTS: Barbiturate poisoning & Chloral hydrate

CNS DEPRESSANTS: Barbiturate poisoning & Chloral hydrate

CNS DEPRESSANTS: Barbiturate poisoning & Chloral hydrate

Q. 1

Barbiturate ingestion is associated with hypertrophy of which cellular organelle?

 A

Mitochondria

 B

Endoplasmic reticulum

 C

Golgi apparatus

 D

Nucleolus

Q. 1

Barbiturate ingestion is associated with hypertrophy of which cellular organelle?

 A

Mitochondria

 B

Endoplasmic reticulum

 C

Golgi apparatus

 D

Nucleolus

Ans. B

Explanation:

Hypertrophy usually refers to increase in size of cells or tissues, but sometimes a subcellular organelle may undergo selective hypertrophy. Individuals treated with drugs such as barbiturates show hypertrophy of the smooth endoplamic reticulum (ER) in hepatocytes, which is an adaptive response that increases the amount of enzymes (cytochrome P-450 mixed function oxidases) available to detoxify the drugs.

Ref: Robbins, 8th edition, Chapter 1.


Q. 2

The following are true about chloral hydrate except

 A

Peculiar pungent odour

 B

Crystalline

 C

Used as hypnotic

 D

Sweetish taste

Q. 2

The following are true about chloral hydrate except

 A

Peculiar pungent odour

 B

Crystalline

 C

Used as hypnotic

 D

Sweetish taste

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. Sweetish taste

Chloral hydrate (a hypnotic drug) sometimes known as dry wineQ is used in alcohol to produce sleep. Its action is so rapid that it has been given the name “knock out drops”Q. Chloral hydrate rapidly deteriorates after death. Chemical of the viscera should therefore be done as a matter of urgency.


Q. 3

True about severe barbiturate poisoning EXCEPT:

 A

Hypothermia

 B

Hypertension

 C

Coma

 D

Non-reactive pupil

Q. 3

True about severe barbiturate poisoning EXCEPT:

 A

Hypothermia

 B

Hypertension

 C

Coma

 D

Non-reactive pupil

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. Hypertension

Barbiturates cause hypotension not hypertension.Q


Q. 4

Breathing seen in barbiturate poisoning:

CMC (Vellore) 14

 A

Rapid and deep

 B

Slow and shallow

 C

Normal breathing

 D

Rapid and shallow

Q. 4

Breathing seen in barbiturate poisoning:

CMC (Vellore) 14

 A

Rapid and deep

 B

Slow and shallow

 C

Normal breathing

 D

Rapid and shallow

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. Rapid and shallow

Quiz In Between



CNS DEPRESSANTS: Barbiturate poisoning & Chloral hydrate

CNS DEPRESSANTS: Barbiturate poisoning & Chloral hydrate


Barbiturate  poisoning

  • It  is  mostly  suicidal, sometimes  accidental.
  • Manifestations  are due  to  excessive  CNS  depression.
  • patient  is  flabby  and  comatose  with shallow  and failing  respiration  cyanosis.
  • fall  in  BP and  cardiovascular  collapse.
  • Renal shut  down,  pulmonary complications,  bullous eruption  (barbiturate  blisters).
  • Hypothermia ,  Finally  there  is  coma.
  • Individuals treated with drugs such as barbiturates show hypertrophy of the smooth endoplamic reticulum (ER) in hepatocytes

Important  specific  features  are

  • constricted  pupil (there  may  be  alternate  constriction and dilatation,  i.e. happus reaction).
  • liquid  gold  urine.

 Treatment  includes  :

  • Gastric  lavage
  • Haemodialsis
  • Supportive  measures (O2, assissed  respiration,  maintenance  of BP).
  • Forced  alkaline  diuresis.

Chloral Hydrate

  • Chloral  hydrate  is  a colourless,  crystalline  substance  having  peculiar  pungent  odor  and pungent bitter test.
  • It  is  a powerful  hypnotic in doses  produces  natural  sleep,  but in  larger  doses  depresses  CNS  and paralyses  vital centers.
  • It  is  given  in  food  or drink  to  make person  helpless,  called  knock out drops.
  • Mickey finn is  a  combination  of alcohol and chloral  hydrate.
  • Chloral  hydrate  is  also  called  dry  wine.

Exam Important

Barbiturate  poisoning:

  • patient  is  flabby  and  comatose  with shallow  and failing  respiration  cyanosis.
  • fall  in  BP and  cardiovascular  collapse
  • Hypothermia ,  Finally  there  is  coma.
  • Individuals treated with drugs such as barbiturates show hypertrophy of the smooth endoplamic reticulum (ER) in hepatocytes.

Chloral Hydrate:

  • crystalline  substance  having  peculiar  pungent  odor  and pungent bitter test.
  • It  is  given  in  food  or drink  to  make person  helpless,  called  knock out drops.
  • Mickey finn is  a  combination  of alcohol and chloral  hydrate.
  • Chloral  hydrate  is  also  called  dry  wine
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