Tag: Difference between Meningitis and Encephalitis

Difference between Meningitis and Encephalitis

Difference between Meningitis and Encephalitis


S.N.

Character

Meningitis

Encephalitis

1. Definition Inflammation of the thin membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord called the meninges (mostly of the pia mater and arachnoid mater). Inflammation of the brain parenchyma.
2. Causative Agent Bacteria, Viruses and Fungi Mostly Viruses
3. Microorganisms involved The most common are echovirus, poliovirus, and coxsackie.

Bacterial meningitis develops under the action of StreptococcusNeisseriaHaemophilusListeria, and other bacteria.

Viruses (herpes virus, rabies virus, arboreal viruses, cytomegalovirus, etc.);

Bacteria – often occurring as meningoencephalitis caused by meningococci, pneumococci,

Hemophilus, tuberculous bacteria, etc.)

Fungi or parasites such as leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis, etc.

4. Other Causes
  • Response to a brain tumor;
  • Reaction after a chemotherapy;
  • Poisoning with lead;
  • Reaction after complex studies with a contrast medium;
  • Parasites, fungal infections.
  • Complicated brain tumors;
  • Sarcoidosis;
  • Leukemia;
  • Multiple sclerosis;
  • Lead poisoning;
  • Reaction after application of various substances in the liquor;
  • Cerebrovascular accidents, etc.
5. Incubation period The symptoms of meningitis develop within a few hours to a couple of days. The most common incubation period is 3-5 days.
6. Symptoms Headache is most common, along with vomiting or nausea, skin rash or discoloration of skin, high fever, stiff neck, confusion, double vision. Headache, joint pain, irritability, fever, lethargy, seizures, behavioral changes.
7. Complications
  • Temporary or permanent loss of hearing or vision;
  • Irreversible brain damage, affecting the cognitive abilities, movement abilities
  • Hydrocephalus;
  • Encephalitis.
  • Memory problems
  • Personality and behavioral changes
  • Speech problems
  • Epilepsy
  • Physical and motor difficulties
  • Low mood
  • Fatigue
8. Rash Skin discoloration or rash  may be present Absent
9. Altered Mental Status No focal deficits or AMS Altered Mental Status
10. Forms Meningitis can be only of one form. Primary and secondary encephalitis.

  • Primary: the brain and spinal cord are directly affected.
  • Secondary: the infection enters the brain after affecting another organ.
11. Types
  • Tuberculous meningitis,
  • Aseptic meningitis
  • Syphilitic aseptic meningitis
  • Cryptococcal meningitis
  • Staphylococcal meningitis
  • Gram negative meningitis
  • Pneumococcal meningitis
  • H.influenza meningitis Meningococcal meningitis.
  • Polyoencephalitis – localized in the gray matter of the brain/spinal cord;
  • Leucoencephalitis – localized in the cerebral white brain matter;
  •  Panencephalomyelitis – localized in the gray and white matter of the brain/spinal cord;
  • Perivenous encephalomyelitis.
12. Modes of Transmission

(Transmission possibility depends on the type of causative agent involved)

Bacteria are present in discharges from the nose and mouth and cause transmission through droplets.
  • Breathing in respiratory droplets from an infected person
  • Skin contact
  • Mosquito, tick, and other insect bites
  • Tick of Horses
  • Migratory Birds
  • Contaminated food or drink
13. Risk group age Those older than 60 and younger than 5 are at highest risk. Occurs most frequently in infants younger than 1 year of age and in elderly patients older than the age of 65 with intermediate incidence in individuals between these age extremes.
14. Diagnosis Physical examination,

Followed by CBC with di?erential, C-reactive protein, and blood for Gram stain and culture.

Clinical presentation and supported by spinal ?uid analysis and neuroimaging abnormalities, CSF, PCR.
15. CSF findings The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is abnormal. The CSF findings are variable.
16. Treatment Ampicillin is usually prescribed along with an aminoglycoside or a cephalosporin (cefotaxime) medication. Acyclovir, and is usually administered intravenously in the hospital for at least ten days.
17. Vaccines Vaccines of varying effectiveness exist against the following bacterial causes of meningitis:

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae;
  • Neisseria meningitides;
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Vaccines exist against some types of encephalitis:

  • Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine;
  • Japanese encephalitis vaccine.

Exam Important

  • Bacterial meningitis develops under the action of StreptococcusNeisseriaHaemophilusListeria, and other bacteria.
  • Bacteria are present in discharges from the nose and mouth and cause transmission through droplets.
  • Mosquito, tick, and other insect bites,  Tick of Horses,  Migratory Birds,  Contaminated food or drink causes Encephalitis
  • A mpicillin is usually prescribed along with an aminoglycoside or a cephalosporin (cefotaxime) medication. in  meningitis 
  • Acyclovir, and is usually administered intravenously in the hospital for at least ten days in Encephalitis.

 

Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Difference between Meningitis and Encephalitis

Module Below Start Quiz

Difference between Meningitis and Encephalitis

Difference between Meningitis and Encephalitis

Q. 1 Drug used to treat Cryptococcal meningitis is:
March 2007

 A

Pentostatin

 B

Amphotericin B

 C

Zidovudine

 D

Clotrimazole

Q. 1

Drug used to treat Cryptococcal meningitis is:
March 2007

 A

Pentostatin

 B

Amphotericin B

 C

Zidovudine

 D

Clotrimazole

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. B: Amphotericin B

Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus. It causes meningitis, especially as a secondary infection in AIDS patients.

Cryptococcosis that does not affect the central nervous system can be treated with fluconazole alone.

Cryptococcal meningitis should be treated for two weeks with intravenous Amphotericin B and oral flucytosine. Main disadvantage of Amphotericin B includes nephrotoxicity.


Q. 2 Most common cause for meningitis in adults:
September 2009

 A

H.Influenzae

 B

N.meningitidis

 C

Staph.aureus

 D

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Q. 2

Most common cause for meningitis in adults:
September 2009

 A

H.Influenzae

 B

N.meningitidis

 C

Staph.aureus

 D

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. D: Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of meningitis in adults of age over twenty years, accounting for nearly half of the cases.

N. meningitidis accounts for nearly 25% of the cases. Staph.aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are important causes of meningitis that occurs following neurosurgical procedures.


Q. 3 Most common causative agent for meningitis in the immunocompromised patient is:      
September 2009

 A

Histoplasmosis

 B

Cryptococcus

 C

Candida albicans

 D

Coccidiomycosis

Q. 3

Most common causative agent for meningitis in the immunocompromised patient is:      
September 2009

 A

Histoplasmosis

 B

Cryptococcus

 C

Candida albicans

 D

Coccidiomycosis

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. B: Cryptococcus

Cryptococcosis is a systemic or central nervous system (CNS) fungal infection caused by the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. The organism is ubiquitous, but is particularly plentiful in soils enriched with bird droppings.

In immunocompetent patients, cryptococcal infection is usually asymptomatic, self-limited, and confined to the lungs.

In persons with advanced HIV infection (e.g., those with CD4 counts

In HIV-infected patients, Cryptococcus can infect almost all organs in the body, but most commonly causes meningitis or meningoencephalitis.

Quiz In Between


Q. 4 Drug treatment is given for how many days in pneumococcal meningitis

 A

5 days

 B

7 days

 C

14 days

 D

21 days

Q. 4

Drug treatment is given for how many days in pneumococcal meningitis

 A

5 days

 B

7 days

 C

14 days

 D

21 days

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., 14 days

Recommendations for duration of treatment

  • Pneumococcal meningitis                       —> 10-14 days
  • Meningococcal meningitis                              5-7 days
  • Hib meningitis                                       —> 7-14 days
  • Listeria meningitis                                 —>     21 days

Q. 5

How long should a child be isolated after being diagnosed with bacterial meningitis to prevent further transmission?

 A Till 24 hours after starting antibiotics

 B

Till cultures become negative

 C

Till antibiotic course is complete

 D

Till l2hrs alter admission

Q. 5

How long should a child be isolated after being diagnosed with bacterial meningitis to prevent further transmission?

 A

Till 24 hours after starting antibiotics

 B

Till cultures become negative

 C

Till antibiotic course is complete

 D

Till l2hrs alter admission

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans: A. Till 24 hours after starting antibiotics
Ref: Ghai Essentisl Pediatrics, 8’t’ ed,, pg. 565′ https://www.cdc.gov
Prevention of transmission:

  • Droplet precautions for the first 24 hours of antimicrobial therapy is sufficient

Quiz In Between



Malcare WordPress Security