Tag: Foramens of skull

Foramens of skull

Foramens of skull


SKULL:

The human skull has numerous holes (foramina) through which cranial nerves, arteries, veins and other structures pass.

  • Nasopalatine nerve
  • Rami nasales posteriores superiores (V2)
Bone Cranial fossa Foramina Vessels Nerves
Frontal     Supraorbital foramen
  • Supraorbital artery, supraorbital vein
  • Supraorbital nerve
Frontal Anterior cranial fossa     Foramen cecum
  • Emissary veins to superior sagittal sinus from the upper part of the nose
 
Ethmoid Anterior cranial fossa (osama)     Foramina of cribriform plate
  • Olfactory nerve bundles (I)
Ethmoid Anterior cranial fossa     Anterior ethmoidal foramen
  • Anterior ethmoidal artery
  • Anterior ethmoidal vein
  • Anterior ethmoidal nerve
Ethmoid Anterior cranial fossa     Posterior ethmoidal foramen
  • Posterior ethmoidal artery
  • Posterior ethmoidal vein
  • Posterior ethmoidal nerve
Sphenoid     Optic canal(lesser wing of sphenoid)
  • Ophthalmic artery
  • Optic nerve (II)
Sphenoid Middle cranial fossa     Superior orbital fissure(greater & lesser               wing of sphenoid)
  • Superior ophthalmic vein
  • Oculomotor nerve (III)
  • Trochlear nerve (IV)
  • Lacrimal, frontal and nasociliary branches of ophthalmic nerve (V1)
  • Abducent nerve (VI)
Sphenoid Middle cranial fossa     Foramen rotundum
  • Maxillary nerve (V2)
Maxilla     Incisive foramen/incisive canal
  • Terminal branch of palatine descendens artery
  • Terminal part of nasopalatine nerve (V2)
Palatine     Greater palatine foramen
  • Greater palatine artery
  • Greater palatine vein
  • Greater palatine nerve
Palatine and sphenoid     Foramen sphenopalatinum
  • Sphenopalatina artery
  • Sphenopalatina vein
Palatine and maxilla     Lesser palatine foramina
  • Lesser palatine artery
  • Lesser palatine vein
  • Lesser palatine nerve, greater palatine nerve
Sphenoid and maxilla    Inferior orbital fissure
  • Inferior ophthalmic veins
  • Infraorbital artery
  • Infraorbital vein, tributary of pterygoid plexus
  • Zygomatic nerve and infraorbital nerve of maxillary nerve (V2)
  • Orbital branches of pterygopalatine ganglion
Maxilla     Infraorbital foramen
  • Infraorbital artery
  • Infraorbital vein, tributary of pterygoid plexus
  • Infraorbital nerve
Sphenoid Middle cranial fossa     Foramen ovale
  • Accessory meningeal artery
  • emissary vein connecting cavernous sinus with pterygoid plexus
  • Mandibular nerve (V3)
  • Lesser petrosal nerve (occasionally)
Sphenoid Middle cranial fossa     Foramen spinosum
  • Middle meningeal artery & vein
  • Emissary vein
  • Nerve spinosus (Meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve )
Sphenoid Middle cranial fossa     Foramen lacerum
  • Artery of pterygoid canal
  • Meningeal branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
  • Occipital artery & emissary vein
  • Nerve of pterygoid canal through its anterior wall.
Temporal Posterior cranial fossa     Internal auditory (acoustic) meatus
  • Labyrinthine artery
  • Facial nerve (VII),
  • vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
  • Nervus intermedius of Wrisberg
Temporal Posterior cranial fossa     Jugular foramen
  • Internal jugular vein
  • inferior petrosal sinus, sigmoid sinus
  • Occipital artery
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
  • vagus nerve (X)
  • accessory nerve (XI)
Occipital Posterior cranial fossa     Hypoglossal canal (Anterior condylar canal)
  • Meningeal branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
  • Hypoglossal nerve (XII)
Occipital Posterior cranial fossa     Foramen magnum
  • Anterior and posterior spinal arteries
  • vertebral arteries
  • Lowest part of medulla oblongata
  • three meninges (dura, arachnoid & piamater)
  • ascending spinal fibers of accessory nerve (XI)
Temporal Posterior cranial fossa     Stylomastoid foramen
  • Stylomastoid artery
  • Facial nerve (VII)

                                

Exam Question

  • Superior orbital fissure is formed by Greater wing of sphenoid and lesser wing of sphenoid.
  • Optic canal is a part of lesser wing of  sphenoid.
  • Vertical crest in fundus of the internal carotid artery os known as Bill’s bar.
  • Gland derived from foramen caecum is Thyroid.
  • Foramen transversarium transmit Vertebral artery.

STRUCTURES PASSING THROIGH FORAMINA

FORAMEN MAGNUM

  • Ant. Part: Apical ligament of dens, membrane tectoria, vertical band of cruciate ligament.
  • Post. Part: Lowest part of medulla oblongata, 3 meninges (dura, arachnoid & pia mater)
  • Subarachnoid space: spinal fibers of accessory nerve (XI), vertebral artery, Lowest part of medulla oblongata

FORAMEN OVALE

  • Mandibular nerce
  • Accessory meningeal artery [MALE]
  • Lesser petrosal nerve
  • Emissary vein

FORAMEN SPINOSUM

  • Middle meningeal artery
  • Emissary vein  [MEN]
  • Nerve spinosus

FORAMEN LACERUM

  • Meningeal branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
  • Nerve of pterygoid canal through its anterior wall.

FORAMEN ROTUNDUM

  • Maxillary nerve (V2)

STYLOMASTOID FORAMEN

  • Facial nerve (VII)

JUGULAR FORAMEN

  • Ant. Part:  Inferior petrosal sinus
  • Middle part: Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X), accessory nerve (XI)
  • Posterior part: Internal jugular vein,  sigmoid sinus, Occipital artery

GREATER PALATINE FORAMEN

  • Greater palatine artery
  • Greater palatine vein
  • Anterior palatine nerves

LESSER PALATINE FORAMEN

  • Lesser palatine nerve, greater palatine nerve

INCISIVE FORAMEN

  • Terminal part of nasopalatine nerve (V2)
  • Greater palatine vessels

MASTOID FORAMEN

  • Meningeal branch of occipital artery, emissary vein

SUPRAORBITAL FORAMEN

  • Supraorbital artery & nerve, frontal diploic vein

INFRAORBITAL FORAMEN

  • Infraorbital nerve & vessels

MENTAL FORAMEN

  • Mental Nerves and Vessels 

FORAMEN OF WINSLOW

  • IVC 

FORAMEN CECUM

  • Emissary veins to superior sagittal sinus from the upper part of the nose

FORAMEN OF VESALIUS (Emissary sphenoidal foramen)

  • Emissary vein connecting cavernous sinus with pterygoid venous plexus
 

STRUCTURES PASSING THROIGH FORAMINA OF SKULL

CAROTID CANAL

  • Internal carotid artery with sympathetic plexus around it
  • Emissary vein (connecting cavernous sinus with IJV)

PTERYGOID CANAL

  • Vidian nerve
  • Vidian artery

HYPOGLOSAL CANAL (Anterior condylar canal)

  • Hypoglossal nerve (XII)
  • Meningeal branch of ascending pharyngeal artery

POSTERIOR CONDYLAR CANAL

  • Emissary vein (connecting sigmoid sinus with suboccipital vein)

MASTOID CANALICULUS

  • Auricular branch of vagus nerve (entry) [Alderman’s nerve or Arnold’s nerve]

TYMPANOMASTOID FISSURE

  • Auricular branch of vagus nerve (exit)

TYMPANIC CANALICULUS

  • Tympanic branch of Glossopharyngeal nerve (Jacobson nerve)

OPTIC CANAL (Foramen)

  • Ophthalmic artery
  • Optic nerve (II)

SUPERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE

  • Divided into 3 parts by common tendinous ring of Zinn:

Middle part- Upper & lower division of oculomotor nerve, nasociliary nerve, Abducent nerve

Lateral part- Trochlear nerve, frontal nerve & Lacrimal nerve, Superior ophthalmic vein

Medial part: Inferior ophthalmic vein, sympathetic nerves around ICA

INFERIOR ORBITAL FISSURE

  • Zygomatic nerve and infraorbital nerve of maxillary nerve (V2)

ANTERIOR ETHMOIDAL CANAL

  • Anterior ethmoidal nerve & vessels

POSTERIOR ETHMOIDAL CANAL

  • Posterior  ethmoidal nerve & vessels

INTERNAL AUDITORY (Acoustic) MEATUS

  • Facial nerve (VII), vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII)
  • Nervus  intermedius of Wrisberg
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Foramens of skull

Foramens of skull

FORAMENS OF SKULL

Q. 1

Structure passing through Foramen Ovale is?

 A

Maxillary artery

 B

Mandibular nerve

 C

Middle meningeal artery

 D

Spinal accessory nerve

Q. 1

Structure passing through Foramen Ovale is?

 A

Maxillary artery

 B

Mandibular nerve

 C

Middle meningeal artery

 D

Spinal accessory nerve

Ans. B

Explanation:

Mandibular nerve


Q. 2

Structure passing through foramen Rotundum?

 A

Maxillary artery

 B

Maxillary nerve

 C

Middle meningeal artery

 D

Spinal accessory nerve

Q. 2

Structure passing through foramen Rotundum?

 A

Maxillary artery

 B

Maxillary nerve

 C

Middle meningeal artery

 D

Spinal accessory nerve

Ans. B

Explanation:

Maxillary nerve


Q. 3 Superior orbital fissure is formed by :
 A Greater wing of sphenoid and lesser wing of sphenoid.
 B Greater wing of sphenoid and palatine process of maxilla.
 C Lesser wing of sphenoid and palatine process of maxilla.
 D Greater wing and lesser wing of sphenoid and body of sphenoid.
Q. 3 Superior orbital fissure is formed by :
 A Greater wing of sphenoid and lesser wing of sphenoid.
 B Greater wing of sphenoid and palatine process of maxilla.
 C Lesser wing of sphenoid and palatine process of maxilla.
 D Greater wing and lesser wing of sphenoid and body of sphenoid.
Ans. A

Explanation: Superior orbital fissure is a slit like opening between the lesser and greater wing of the sphenoid. It transmits the lacrimal, frontal, trochlear, oculomotor, nasociliary and abducens nerve together with superior ophthalmic vein.

Foramen rotundum: It is situated behind the medial end of superior orbital fissure. It perforates the greater wing of sphenoid and transmits the maxillary nerve from the trigeminal ganglion to the pterygopalatine fossa.

Foramen ovale: It lies posterolateral to the foramen rotundum. It perforates the greater wing of sphenoid and transmits the large sensory root and small motor root of the mandibular nerve to the infratemporal fossa.

Ref: Tsai L.M., Kamenetzky S.A. (2010). Chapter 37. The Eye & Ocular Adnexa. In G.M. Doherty (Ed), CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Surgery, 13e.


Q. 4

Foramen spinosum transmits the following?

 A

Meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve, middle meningeal artery

 B

Emissary veins from the cavernous sinus

 C

Both A and B

 D

None of the above

Q. 4

Foramen spinosum transmits the following?

 A

Meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve, middle meningeal artery

 B

Emissary veins from the cavernous sinus

 C

Both A and B

 D

None of the above

Ans. A

Explanation:

Foramen spinosum is a opening in middle cranial fossa situated immediately in front of the angular spine, posterolateral to foramen ovale. It transmits the middle meningeal artery and vein, and  surrounding the artery. 
 
The various foramens in middle cranial fossa are;
  • Foramen ovale
  • Foramen lacerum
  • Foramen spinosum
  • Foramen rotundum
  • Superior orbital fissure
 

Foramens in middle cranial fossa

Location

Content

Foramen ovale

Posteriolateral to the foramen rotumdum

Accessory meningeal artery

Mandibular nerve (V3)

Lesser petrosal nerve (occasionally)

accessory meningeal vein

Foramen spinosum

Posteriolateral to the foramen ovale

Middle meningeal artery and vein

Meningeal branch of the mandibular nerve (V3)

Sympathetic plexus

Foramen lacerum

Lies superiomedially to the foramen spinosum

Internal carotid artery,

Artery of pterygoid canal

Nerve of pterygoid canal

Superior orbital fissure

Slit like opening between the lesser and greater wings of the sphenoid

Oculomotor nerve (III)

Trochlear nerve (IV)

Lacrimal, frontal and nasociliary branches of Ophthalmic nerve (V1)

Abducent nerve (VI)

Orbital branch of middle meningeal artery

Recurrent branch of lacrimal artery

Superior orbital vein

Superior ophthalmic vein

Foramen rotundum

Below and behind the medial end of the superior orbital fissure

Maxillary nerve (V2)

 

Q. 5

Which of the following opening in the base of the skull transmits the third branch of trigeminal nerve?

 A

Foramen ovale

 B

Foramen lacerum

 C

Foramen magnum

 D

Foramen spinosum

Q. 5

Which of the following opening in the base of the skull transmits the third branch of trigeminal nerve?

 A

Foramen ovale

 B

Foramen lacerum

 C

Foramen magnum

 D

Foramen spinosum

Ans. A

Explanation:

Foramen ovale is an opening at the base of the lateral pterygoid plate. It transmits the third branch of the trigeminal nerve, the accessory meningeal artery, and occasionally the superficial petrosal nerve.
 
  • Foramen lacerum transmits the internal carotid artery.
  • Foramen magnum transmits the medulla and its membranes, the spinal accessory nerves, the vertebral arteries, and the anterior and posterior spinal arteries.

Q. 6

Which of the following cranial nerve travels through the jugular foramen in the base of the skull?

 A

3rd branch of trigeminal nerve

 B

Abducens nerve

 C

Facial nerve

 D

Glossopharyngeal nerve

Q. 6

Which of the following cranial nerve travels through the jugular foramen in the base of the skull?

 A

3rd branch of trigeminal nerve

 B

Abducens nerve

 C

Facial nerve

 D

Glossopharyngeal nerve

Ans. D

Explanation:

Glossopharyngeal nerve travel through the middle compartment of the jugular foramen. Jugular foramen is formed by the petrous portion of the temporal and occipital bones. It is divided into 3 compartments. The intermediate compartment contains the glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves. The anterior compartment contains the inferior petrosal sinus and the posterior compartment contains the sigmoid sinus and meningeal branches from the occipital and ascending pharyngeal arteries.

Q. 7

Middle meningeal artery courses along which of the following opening in the base of the skull?

 A

Foramen ovale

 B

Foramen lacerum

 C

Foramen spinosum

 D

Foramen rotundum

Q. 7

Middle meningeal artery courses along which of the following opening in the base of the skull?

 A

Foramen ovale

 B

Foramen lacerum

 C

Foramen spinosum

 D

Foramen rotundum

Ans. C

Explanation:

Middle meningeal artery and vein travels through foramen spinosum. 
 
Structures passing through openings in the skull base are:

 

Foramen

Structures

Cribriform plate of ethmoid

Olfactory nerves

Optic foramen

Optic nerve, ophthalmic artery, meninges

Superior orbital fissure

Oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves; ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve; superior ophthalmic vein

Foramen rotundum

Maxillary division of trigeminal nerve, small artery and vein

Foramen ovale

Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve, vein

Foramen lacerum

Internal carotid artery, sympathetic plexus

Foramen spinosum

Middle meningeal artery and vein

Internal acoustic meatus

Facial and vestibulocochlear nerves, internal auditory artery

Jugular foramen

Glossopharyngeal, vagus, and spinal accessory nerves; sigmoid sinus

Hypoglossal canal

Hypoglossal nerve

Foramen magnum

Medulla and meninges, spinal accessory nerve, vertebral arteries, anterior and posterior spinal arteries


Q. 8

Which of the following structure is passing through foramen rotundum?

 A

Maxillary artery

 B

Maxillary nerve

 C

Middle meningeal artery

 D

Spinal accessory nerve

Q. 8

Which of the following structure is passing through foramen rotundum?

 A

Maxillary artery

 B

Maxillary nerve

 C

Middle meningeal artery

 D

Spinal accessory nerve

Ans. B

Explanation:

Foramen rotundum located posterior to the medial end of the superior orbital fissure. The foramen rotundum transmits the maxillary nerve (CN V-2) en route to the pterygopalatine fossa. CN V-2 supplies the skin, teeth, and mucosa associated with the maxillary bone.

Q. 9

True about relation of epiploic foramen is :

 A

Portal vein posteriorly

 B

IVC inferiorly

 C

Hepatic art superiorly

 D

Bile duct anteriorly

Q. 9

True about relation of epiploic foramen is :

 A

Portal vein posteriorly

 B

IVC inferiorly

 C

Hepatic art superiorly

 D

Bile duct anteriorly

Ans. D

Explanation:

D. i.e. Bile duct anteriorly 


Q. 10

Primary and secondary palates are divided by

 A

Greater palatine foramen

 B

Canine teeth

 C

Alveolar arch

 D

Incisive foramen

Q. 10

Primary and secondary palates are divided by

 A

Greater palatine foramen

 B

Canine teeth

 C

Alveolar arch

 D

Incisive foramen

Ans. D

Explanation:

D. i.e. Incisive foramen

The incisive foramen is dividing landmark between the primary & secondary palateQ; and anterior & posterior cleft deformities


Q. 11

Mandibular nerve passes through following foramen:

 A

F. ovale

 B

F. rotundum

 C

F. spinosum

 D

F. lacerum

Q. 11

Mandibular nerve passes through following foramen:

 A

F. ovale

 B

F. rotundum

 C

F. spinosum

 D

F. lacerum

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Foramen ovale 

–     Vidian nerve and artery pass through pterygoid canalQ.

Foramen spinosum pass MEN i.e. Middle meningeal artery, Emissary vein & Nervous spinosus (meningeal br. of mandibular nerve).

–    Foramen ovale pass MALE i.e. Mandibular nerveQ, Accessory meningeal artery, Lesser petrosal nerve and Emissary vein.


Q. 12

All of the following nerves pass through Jugular foramen except:

 A

9th

 B

10th

 C

11th

 D

12th

Q. 12

All of the following nerves pass through Jugular foramen except:

 A

9th

 B

10th

 C

11th

 D

12th

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. 12th nerve 


Q. 13

Structures passing through superior orbital fissure:

 A

Cranial nerve VI

 B

Cranial nerve I

 C

Cranial nerve II

 D

Ophthalmic nerve

Q. 13

Structures passing through superior orbital fissure:

 A

Cranial nerve VI

 B

Cranial nerve I

 C

Cranial nerve II

 D

Ophthalmic nerve

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Cranial nerve VI


Q. 14

Structures passing through superior orbital fissure:

 A

Oculomotor nerve

 B

Trochlear nerve

 C

Lacrimal nerve

 D

All

Q. 14

Structures passing through superior orbital fissure:

 A

Oculomotor nerve

 B

Trochlear nerve

 C

Lacrimal nerve

 D

All

Ans. D

Explanation:

A. i.e. Oculomotor nerve; B i.e. Trochlear nerve; C i.e. Lacrimal nerve


Q. 15

Structure passing through the foramen manum are

 A

Spinal cord

 B

Vertebral artery

 C

Internal jugular vein

 D

All

Q. 15

Structure passing through the foramen manum are

 A

Spinal cord

 B

Vertebral artery

 C

Internal jugular vein

 D

All

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. Vertebral artery 


Q. 16

Structures passing through foramen magnum include all

 A

Spinal accessory nerve

 B

Spinal cord

 C

Vertebral artery

 D

Vertebral venous plexus 

Q. 16

Structures passing through foramen magnum include all

 A

Spinal accessory nerve

 B

Spinal cord

 C

Vertebral artery

 D

Vertebral venous plexus 

Ans. B

Explanation:

B. i.e. Spinal cord 

Lower part of medulla oblongata (not the spinal cord)Q passes through posterior part of foramen magnum, and vertebral arteries are transmitted through the subarachnoid space in foramen magnum.Q


Q. 17

True about foramen of Morgagni:

 A

It is femoral canal

 B

It is a diaphragmatic opening

 C

Superior epigastric vessels passes through it

 D

B and C

Q. 17

True about foramen of Morgagni:

 A

It is femoral canal

 B

It is a diaphragmatic opening

 C

Superior epigastric vessels passes through it

 D

B and C

Ans. D

Explanation:

B i.e. It is an opening through diaphragm C i.e. Superior epigastric vessels passes through it. 


Q. 18

Which of the following regarding mandibular nerve is correct-           

 A

Branch of facial nerve

 B

Purely motor

 C

Passes through foramen ovale

 D

Related to sphenopalatine ganglion

Q. 18

Which of the following regarding mandibular nerve is correct-           

 A

Branch of facial nerve

 B

Purely motor

 C

Passes through foramen ovale

 D

Related to sphenopalatine ganglion

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. Passes through foramen ovale


Q. 19

Hernia through foramen of Bochdalek true is –

 A

Congeniatal hernia

 B

Is asymptomatic

 C

Seen especially in males

 D

Least common

Q. 19

Hernia through foramen of Bochdalek true is –

 A

Congeniatal hernia

 B

Is asymptomatic

 C

Seen especially in males

 D

Least common

Ans. A

Explanation:

Answer is ‘a’ i.e. Congenital hernia 


Q. 20

Trochlear and abducent nerve pass through

 A

Optic canal

 B

Superior orbital fissure

 C

Inferior orbital fissure

 D

Infraorbital foramen

Q. 20

Trochlear and abducent nerve pass through

 A

Optic canal

 B

Superior orbital fissure

 C

Inferior orbital fissure

 D

Infraorbital foramen

Ans. B

Explanation:

Optic nerve runs backwards and medially, and passes through the optic canal to enter the middle cranial fossa

  • Inferior orbital fissure transmits maxillary nerve, the zygomatic nerve etc.
  • Infraorbital foramen transmits the infraorbital nerve and vessels

Q. 21

 Structures Passing Through The Foramen Marked in the Diagram are all EXCEPT?

Foramen Magnum

 A

Spinal accessory nerve

 B

Spinal cord

 C

Vertebral artery

 D

Vertebral venous plexus

Q. 21

 Structures Passing Through The Foramen Marked in the Diagram are all EXCEPT?

Foramen Magnum

 A

Spinal accessory nerve

 B

Spinal cord

 C

Vertebral artery

 D

Vertebral venous plexus

Ans. B

Explanation:

The Structure Marked is Foramen Magnum 

Lower part of medulla oblongata (not the spinal cord) passes through posterior part of foramen magnum, and vertebralarteries are transmitted through the subarachnoid space in foramen magnum


Q. 22

Identify the Foramen marked in the Picture

Mental Foramen

 A

Incisive Foramen

 B

Mental Foramen

 C

Greater Palatine foramina

 D

Lesser Palatine foramina

Q. 22

Identify the Foramen marked in the Picture

Mental Foramen

 A

Incisive Foramen

 B

Mental Foramen

 C

Greater Palatine foramina

 D

Lesser Palatine foramina

Ans. B

Explanation:

Mental Foramen is marked in the Diagram.

It transmits Mental Nerves and Vessels .


Q. 23

Optic canal is a part of ‑

 A

Lesser wing of sphenoid

 B

Greater wing of sphenoid

 C

Ethmoid

 D

Pterygoid

Q. 23

Optic canal is a part of ‑

 A

Lesser wing of sphenoid

 B

Greater wing of sphenoid

 C

Ethmoid

 D

Pterygoid

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Lesser wing of sphenoid

The optic nerve leaves the orbit is the optic canal to enter the cranial vault.

The optic canal is the most posterior landmark of the orbit. It measures 10 mm in length.

The thin piece of bone separating the optic canal from the superior orbital fissure is the optic strut.

The optic strut and optic canal are a part of the lesser wing of sphenoid bone.


Q. 24

Mandibular nerve passes through ‑

 A

Formanen rotundum

 B

Foramen lacerum

 C

Stylomastoid foramen

 D

Foramen ovale

Q. 24

Mandibular nerve passes through ‑

 A

Formanen rotundum

 B

Foramen lacerum

 C

Stylomastoid foramen

 D

Foramen ovale

Ans. D

Explanation:

Foramen ovale


Q. 25

All are true about boundries of epiploic foramen except –

 A

Anterior : portal vein & hepatic artery

 B

Posterior : IVC

 C

Inferior : liver

 D

Inferior : duodenum

Q. 25

All are true about boundries of epiploic foramen except –

 A

Anterior : portal vein & hepatic artery

 B

Posterior : IVC

 C

Inferior : liver

 D

Inferior : duodenum

Ans. C

Explanation:

Epiploic foramen (foramen of winslow or aditus to lesser sac) is a slit-like opening through which lesser sac communicates with greater sac. It is situated at the level of T12 vertebra. Its boundries are :-

  • Anterior :- Right free margin of lesser omentum (contains portal vein, hepatic artery proper and bile duct).
  • Posterior :- IVC, right suprarenal gland and T12 vertebra.
  • Superior :- Caudate lobe of liver.
  • Inferior :- 1st part of duodenum and horizontal part of hepatic artery.

Q. 26

Which of the following is wrong regarding oph­thalmic artery ‑

 A

Present in dura along with optic nerve

 B

Supplies anterior ethmoidal sinus

 C

Artery to retina is end artery

 D

Leaves orbit through inferior orbital fissure

Q. 26

Which of the following is wrong regarding oph­thalmic artery ‑

 A

Present in dura along with optic nerve

 B

Supplies anterior ethmoidal sinus

 C

Artery to retina is end artery

 D

Leaves orbit through inferior orbital fissure

Ans. D

Explanation:

OPHTHALMIC ARTERY

Origin

The ophthalmic artery is a branch of the cerebral part of the internal carotid artery, given off medial to the anterior clinoid process close to the optic canal.

Course and relations

  1. The artery enters the orbit through the optic canal, lying inferolateral to the optic nerve. Both the artery and nerve lie in a common dural sheath.
  2. In the orbit, the artery pierces the dura mater, ascends over the lateral side of the optic nerve, and crosses above the nerve from lateral to medial side along with the nasociliary nerve. It then runs forwards along the medial wall of the orbit between the superior oblique and the medial rectus muscles, and parallel to the nasociliary nerve.
  3. It terminates near the medial angle of the eye by dividing into the supratrochlear and dorsal nasal branches. Branches

Ophthalmic artery gives following branches :

1. Central artery of retina.

2. Lacrimal artery :-

It gives following branches :

i)  Lateral palpebral branch.

ii) Zygomaticotemporal

iii) Zygomaticofacial

iv) Recurrent meningeal

3. Meningeal

4. Ciliary

5. Anterior ethmoidal

6. Posterior ethmoidal

7. Medial palpebral

8. Supratrochlear

9. Supraorbital

10. Dorsal nasal

Ophthalmic artery is the first and most important branch. It is an end artery.


Q. 27

True about vertebral artery ‑

 A

A branch of thyrocervical trunk

 B

Enters skull through foramen magnum

 C

Unite to form posterior cerebral artery

 D

A small artery

Q. 27

True about vertebral artery ‑

 A

A branch of thyrocervical trunk

 B

Enters skull through foramen magnum

 C

Unite to form posterior cerebral artery

 D

A small artery

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., Enters skull through foramen magnum

Vertebral artery

  • It is the largest branch of subclavian artery.
  • Vertebral artery traverses through vertebral triangle, foramina transversaria of upper six cervical vertebrae, suboccipital triangle, posterior atlanto-occipital membrane, vertebral canal, pierce duramater and arachnoid (Subarachnoid) and passes through foramen magnum to enter posterior cranial fossa. It gives following branches:-
  1. Cervical branches :- Spinal branches, muscular branches (to suboccipital muscle).
  2. Cranial branches :- Posterior inferior cerebellar artery, medullary artery, meningeal branches, anterior spinal artery, posterior spinal artery and both vertebral arteries unite to form basilar artery.

Q. 28

Boundries of foramen of Winslow is formed by all except ‑

 A

IVC

 B

Liver

 C

2nd part of duodenum

 D

Suprarenal gland

Q. 28

Boundries of foramen of Winslow is formed by all except ‑

 A

IVC

 B

Liver

 C

2nd part of duodenum

 D

Suprarenal gland

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., 2nd part of duodenum


Q. 29

Which of the following is incorrectly matched ‑

 A

Foramen rotundum – Maxillary nerve

 B

Foramen ovale – Mandibular nerve

 C

Foramen spinesum – Middle meningeal artery

 D

Jugular foramen – External jugular vein

Q. 29

Which of the following is incorrectly matched ‑

 A

Foramen rotundum – Maxillary nerve

 B

Foramen ovale – Mandibular nerve

 C

Foramen spinesum – Middle meningeal artery

 D

Jugular foramen – External jugular vein

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d’ i.e., Jugular foramen – External jugular vein

Jugular foramen transmits internal jugular vein (not external jugular vein).


Q. 30

Superior orbital fissure syndrome – following nerves are affected ‑

 A

C.N. 1, 2, 4, 6

 B

C.N. 2, 3, 4, 6

 C

C.N. 3, 4, 5, 6

 D

C.N. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Q. 30

Superior orbital fissure syndrome – following nerves are affected ‑

 A

C.N. 1, 2, 4, 6

 B

C.N. 2, 3, 4, 6

 C

C.N. 3, 4, 5, 6

 D

C.N. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., C.N. 3, 4, 5, 6

The superior orbital fissure is a cleft between the lesser and greater wing of sphenoid.The structures passed through superior orbital fissure are 3rd, 4th, 6th nerve, ophthalmic division of 5th nerve, superior & inferior division of ophthalmic vein and sympathetic fibres.


Q. 31

Structures Passing Through The Foramen Marked in the Diagram are all EXCEPT?

 A

Spinal accessory nerve

 B

Spinal cord

 C

Vertebral artery

 D

Vertebral venous plexus

Q. 31

Structures Passing Through The Foramen Marked in the Diagram are all EXCEPT?

 A

Spinal accessory nerve

 B

Spinal cord

 C

Vertebral artery

 D

Vertebral venous plexus

Ans. B

Explanation:

The Structure Marked is Foramen Magnum 

Lower part of medulla oblongata (not the spinal cord) passes through posterior part of foramen magnum, and vertebralarteries are transmitted through the subarachnoid space in foramen magnum


Q. 32

This arrow showing Foramen Spinosum,,Contents are ??

 A

Vertebral venous plexus

 B

Vertebral artery

 C

Middle meningeal artery

 D

Maxillary nerve

Q. 32

This arrow showing Foramen Spinosum,,Contents are ??

 A

Vertebral venous plexus

 B

Vertebral artery

 C

Middle meningeal artery

 D

Maxillary nerve

Ans. C

Explanation:

The lateral segments of the middle fossa are deeper than its middle portion; they support the temporal lobes of the brain and show depressions that mark the convolutions of the brain. These segments are traversed by furrows for the anterior and posterior branches of the middle meningeal vessels, which pass through the foramen spinosum.


Q. 33

The canal marked by an arrow, is a part of??

 A

Lesser wing of sphenoid

 B

Greater wing of sphenoid

 C

Ethmoid

 D

Pterygoid

Q. 33

The canal marked by an arrow, is a part of??

 A

Lesser wing of sphenoid

 B

Greater wing of sphenoid

 C

Ethmoid

 D

Pterygoid

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ”A i.e., Lesser wing of sphenoid

The optic nerve leaves the orbit is the optic canal to enter the cranial vault.

The optic canal is the most posterior landmark of the orbit. It measures 10 mm in length.

The thin piece of bone separating the optic canal from the superior orbital fissure is the optic strut.

The optic strut and optic canal are a part of the lesser wing of sphenoid bone


Q. 34

Contents of jugular foramen are??

 A

Glossopharyngeal nerve

 B

vagus nerve

 C

Accessory nerve

 D

All the above

Q. 34

Contents of jugular foramen are??

 A

Glossopharyngeal nerve

 B

vagus nerve

 C

Accessory nerve

 D

All the above

Ans. D

Explanation:

The glossopharyngeal nerve, the vagus nerve and the accessory nerve, so cranial nerves IX, X and XI pass through the jugular foramen. That’s four structures to remember. You’ve got cranial nerves IX, X and XI and you’ve got the internal jugularvein.


Q. 35

Structure passing through both greater and lesser sciatic foramen is ‑

 A

Pudendal nerve

 B

Sciatic nerve

 C

Superior gluteal nerve 

 D

Inferior gluteal nerve

Q. 35

Structure passing through both greater and lesser sciatic foramen is ‑

 A

Pudendal nerve

 B

Sciatic nerve

 C

Superior gluteal nerve 

 D

Inferior gluteal nerve

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘a’ i.e., Pudendal nerve

Three structures pass through both greater and lesser sciatic foramen :-

  • Pudendal nerve
  • Internal pudendal vessels
  • Nerve to obturator internus

Structure passing throught greater sciatic foramen

  1.  Piriformis fills the foramen almost completely
  2. Structures passing above the piriformis
  • Superior gluteal nerve
  • Superior gluteal vessels
  • Structures passing below the piriformis
  • Inferior gluteal nerve
  • Inferior gluteal vessel.
  • Sciatic nerve
  • Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
  • Nerve to quadratus femoris
  • Pudendal nerve
  • Internal pudendal vessels
  • Nerve to obturator internus

Note : Last three structures also enter the lesser sciatic foramen.

  • Structures passing through lesser sciatic foramen
  • Pudendal nerve
  • Internal pudendal vessels
  • Nerve to obturator internus

Q. 36

All pass through jugular foramen except 

 A

Emissary vein

 B

Vagus nerve

 C

Mandibular nerve

 D

Internal jugular vein

Q. 36

All pass through jugular foramen except 

 A

Emissary vein

 B

Vagus nerve

 C

Mandibular nerve

 D

Internal jugular vein

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Mandibular nerve


Q. 37

Foramen ovale transmits all except 

 A

Emissary vein

 B

Mandibular nerve

 C

Lesser petrosal nerve

 D

Middle meningeal artery

Q. 37

Foramen ovale transmits all except 

 A

Emissary vein

 B

Mandibular nerve

 C

Lesser petrosal nerve

 D

Middle meningeal artery

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘d’ i.e., Middle meningeal artery 

Foramen ovate transmits (mnemonic – MALE) :-

  1. Mandibular nerve
  2. Accessory meningeal artery
  3. Lesser petrosal nerve
  4. Emissory vein


Malcare WordPress Security