Tag: Vision & Visual Symptoms

Vision & Visual Symptoms

VISION & VISUAL SYMPTOMS

Q. 1

Painless loss of vision is seen in all, EXCEPT:

 A

Papilledema

 B

Papillitis

 C

Angle closure glaucoma

 D

CRAO

Q. 1

Painless loss of vision is seen in all, EXCEPT:

 A

Papilledema

 B

Papillitis

 C

Angle closure glaucoma

 D

CRAO

Ans. C

Explanation:

Acute angle-closure glaucoma is an ophthalmic emergency that causes severe visual loss without treatment. Symptoms include ocular pain, blurred vision, lacrimation, halos around lights, frontal headache, nausea, and vomiting.

Causes of Sudden Painless Loss of Vision:

  1. Retinal detachment
  2. Vitreous haemorrhage
  3. Retinal vein occlusion
  4. Retinal artery occlusion
  5. Wet age related macular degeneration
  6. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
  7. Optic neuritis
  8. Cerebrovascular accident
  9. Papillitis
  10. Papilledema

Q. 2

Sudden loss of vision is seen in following, except:

 A

CRAO

 B

CRVO

 C

Optic neuritis

 D

Papilledema

Q. 2

Sudden loss of vision is seen in following, except:

 A

CRAO

 B

CRVO

 C

Optic neuritis

 D

Papilledema

Ans. D

Explanation:

Papilledema (choked disk) is usually a symptom of increased intracranial pressure caused by a mass, such as a brain tumor. The increased pressure is transmitted to the optic disk through the extension of the subarachnoid space around the optic nerve. Papilledema caused by a sudden increase in intracranial pressure develops within 24 to 48 hours. Visual acuity is not affected in papilledema, although the blind spot may be enlarged.
 
Ref :Chang D.F. (2011). Chapter 2. Ophthalmologic Examination. In P. Riordan-Eva, E.T. Cunningham, Jr. (Eds), Vaughan & Asbury’s General Ophthalmology, 18e.

Q. 3

In the normal human right eye, the peripheral field of vision is usually least:

 A

On the left side (nasally)

 B

In the downward direction

 C

In the upward direction

 D

On the right side (temporally)

Q. 3

In the normal human right eye, the peripheral field of vision is usually least:

 A

On the left side (nasally)

 B

In the downward direction

 C

In the upward direction

 D

On the right side (temporally)

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. In the upward direction 

As described by Traquair – “the normal visual field is island of vision surrounded by a sea of blindness.” For coloured objects the field is largest for blue Q > yellow > red > green. The outer aspect of visual field extends approximately.

Quiz In Between


Q. 4

Sudden painful loss of vision seen in:

 A

Angle closure glaucoma

 B

Central retinal artery occlusion

 C

Acute uveitis

 D

a and c

Q. 4

Sudden painful loss of vision seen in:

 A

Angle closure glaucoma

 B

Central retinal artery occlusion

 C

Acute uveitis

 D

a and c

Ans. D

Explanation:

A i.e. Angle closure glaucoma; C i.e. Acute uveitis


Q. 5

Painful loss of vision is seen in :

 A

Senile cataract

 B

Primary open angle glaucoma

 C

Primary angle closure glaucoma

 D

Anterior uveitis

Q. 5

Painful loss of vision is seen in :

 A

Senile cataract

 B

Primary open angle glaucoma

 C

Primary angle closure glaucoma

 D

Anterior uveitis

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e Primary angle closure glaucoma


Q. 6

All of the following are causes of sudden painless loss of vision except:

 A

Central retinal artery occlusion

 B

Optic atrophy

 C

Optic neuritis

 D

Retinal detachment

Q. 6

All of the following are causes of sudden painless loss of vision except:

 A

Central retinal artery occlusion

 B

Optic atrophy

 C

Optic neuritis

 D

Retinal detachment

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. Optic atrophy

Quiz In Between


Q. 7

Sudden, transient and painless loss of vision may be complained by the patients with all of the following diseases except:

 A

Carotid transient ischaemic attacks

 B

Papilloedema

 C

Papillitis

 D

Migraine

Q. 7

Sudden, transient and painless loss of vision may be complained by the patients with all of the following diseases except:

 A

Carotid transient ischaemic attacks

 B

Papilloedema

 C

Papillitis

 D

Migraine

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. Papillitis


Q. 8

Snellen’s chart is used to test:

 A

Vision

 B

Refraction

 C

Presbyopia

 D

Colour blindness

Q. 8

Snellen’s chart is used to test:

 A

Vision

 B

Refraction

 C

Presbyopia

 D

Colour blindness

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. Vision


Q. 9

Perimetry is a test to assess the:

 A

Visual acuity

 B

Intraocular pressure

 C

Visual field

 D

Depth of the anterior chamber

Q. 9

Perimetry is a test to assess the:

 A

Visual acuity

 B

Intraocular pressure

 C

Visual field

 D

Depth of the anterior chamber

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. Visual field

Quiz In Between


Q. 10

Sudden painful loss of vision is seen in:

 A

Angle closure glaucoma

 B

Endopthalmitis

 C

Acute uveitis

 D

All

Q. 10

Sudden painful loss of vision is seen in:

 A

Angle closure glaucoma

 B

Endopthalmitis

 C

Acute uveitis

 D

All

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. All A, B, and C


Q. 11

Sudden loss of vision in patient with diabetic retinopathy is due to:

 A

Cataract

 B

Glaucoma

 C

Vitreous defects

 D

Papilloedema

Q. 11

Sudden loss of vision in patient with diabetic retinopathy is due to:

 A

Cataract

 B

Glaucoma

 C

Vitreous defects

 D

Papilloedema

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. Vitreous defects


Q. 12

WHO definition of blindness in addition to visual acuity of less than 3/60 (Snellen’s) also includes a visual field in the better eye equal to or less than:

 A

 B

10°

 C

15°

 D

Q. 12

WHO definition of blindness in addition to visual acuity of less than 3/60 (Snellen’s) also includes a visual field in the better eye equal to or less than:

 A

 B

10°

 C

15°

 D

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. 5°

Quiz In Between


Q. 13

Severe pain in eye with loss of vision can be a mani­festation of:          

March 2013 (h)

 A

Acute angle closure glaucoma

 B

Open angle glaucoma

 C

Vitreous hemorrhage

 D

Retinal detachment

Q. 13

Severe pain in eye with loss of vision can be a mani­festation of:          

March 2013 (h)

 A

Acute angle closure glaucoma

 B

Open angle glaucoma

 C

Vitreous hemorrhage

 D

Retinal detachment

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. A i.e. Acute angle closure glaucoma


Q. 14

Standard in perimetry ‑

 A

Goldman type I

 B

Goldman type II

 C

Goldman type III

 D

Goldman type IV

Q. 14

Standard in perimetry ‑

 A

Goldman type I

 B

Goldman type II

 C

Goldman type III

 D

Goldman type IV

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Goldman type III 

  • Projected stimuli in perimetry are usually white and of variable size and intensity.
  • There are five different sizes on Goldmann scale designated by Roman numeral Ito V.
  • The standard used in both manual and automated perimetry is Goldman III (0.05″ and area of 4mm2). o Failure to recognize target size III necessitates testing with stimulus V
Goldman  scale Stimulus size (mm2)
 I ‘/4
 II

1 

III 
IV  16 
64  

Q. 15

The visual acuity needed as cut-off for differentiating normal from abnormal children in the school vision screening programme in India is ‑

 A

6/6

 B

6/9

 C

6/12

 D

6/90

Q. 15

The visual acuity needed as cut-off for differentiating normal from abnormal children in the school vision screening programme in India is ‑

 A

6/6

 B

6/9

 C

6/12

 D

6/90

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘b’ i.e., 6/9

Quiz In Between



Vision & Visual Symptoms

VISION & VISUAL SYMPTOMS


VISION & VISUAL SYMPTOMS

VISUAL ACQUITY

  • It is a ability to discriminate b/w two points. ie. measure of the spatial resolution of the ye.
  • Visual acquity is an indication of the clarity or clearness of one’s vision.
  • It is a measurement of how well a person sees.
  • Visual acquity is most commonly measured by Snellen’s visual acquity chart.

FIELD OF VISION

  • The extent of the normal visual field is limited in an individual by anatomical features such as the brow superiorly, the nose nasally (mdially) & the cheek inferiorly.

The field for a white target extends:

  1. Upwards (superior)  →  50-60º
  2. Downwards (inferior) →  70-75º
  3. Inwards (nasally) →  60º
  4. Outwards (temporally)→  90-100º

The tests used to measure the field of vision are:

  1. Confirmation test
  2. Perimetry: Kinetic perimetry, or automated perimetry.
  • Visual field defects are best detected by Goldmann kinetic perimetry & Humphery automated threshold perimetry.

Goldman scale in perimetry

  • Projected stimuli in perimetry are usually white & of variable size & intensity.
  • There are 5 different sizes on Goldman scale designated by Roman numeral I to V.
  • The standard used in both manual & automated perimetry is Goldman III (0.05º and area of 4mm).
  • Failure to recognise target size III necessitates testing with stimulus V.

Goldman scale

Stimulus

I

¼

II

1

III

4

IV

16

V

64

LOSS OF VISION

  • Happen either suddenly (acutely/ abruptly) or gradually (chronically).
  • Vision loss may be painful or painless.

SUDDEN

Painful

Painless

  • Acute congestive (angle closure) glaucoma
  • Macular edema
  • Acute iridocyclitis (uveitis)
  • CRAO (Central retinal artery occlusion)
  • Chemical & mechanical injury to eyeball
  • CRVO (Central retinal vein occlusion)
  • Endophthalmitis
  • Central serous retinopathy
  • Optic neuritis
  • Retinal detachment
 
  • Exudative age related macular degeneration (ARMD)
 
  • Degeneration (ARMD)
 
  • Vitreous & retinal haemorrhage
 
  • Subluxation or dislocation of lens

GRADUAL

Painful Painless
  • Corneal ulceration
  • Corneal dystrophy
  • Chronic simple glaucoma
  • Corneal degeneration
  • Chronic radiocyclitis (uveitis)
  • Cataract (development & senile)
 
  • Dry type- Age related macular degeneration (ARMD)
 
  • Diabetic retinopathy
 
  • Refractive errors
 
  • Presbyopia

 Exam Important

  • Snellen’s chart is used to test Vision.
  • In the normal human right eye, the peripheral field of vision is usually least In the upward direction.
  • Perimetry is a test to assess the Visual field.
  • Standard in perimetry Goldman type III.
  • Severe pain in eye with loss of vision can be a mani­festation of Acute angle closure glaucoma.
  • Sudden painful loss of vision seen in Angle closure glaucoma, Acute uveitis, Endophthalmitis & Optic neuritis.
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