Complications of Intrauterine growth restriction

Complications of Intrauterine growth restriction

1. Oligohydramnios

• Less space for fetus leading to cord compression

• Umbilical artery & vein gets compressed

• Fetal distress & fetus will pass meconium

• Fetal swallows meconium with amniotic fluid

2. Meconium Aspiration Syndrome

3. Low birth weight

4. Fetal distress/ hypoxia

5. Still birth

→In Neonates

1. Loose Skin

2. ↓ Tone

3. ↑ HMD/RDS

4. ↑ IVH

5. Neonatal Death

→Fetal Surveillance in IUGR is done by NST (Non-Stress Test) Biweekly

Causes of Intrauterine growth restriction

Causes of Intrauterine growth restriction

Maternal Causes:


• Placental insufficiency

• Chronic renal disease

• Heart disease (NYHA 3 & 4)

• Connective tissue disorders

• Infections

• Diabetes with vasculopathy

• Diabetes with PIH

Placental Causes:

• Placental insufficiency

• Abnormal placentation

• Calcification in placenta

Fetal Causes:

• Chromosomal abnormality

• Genetic disease

• Infections

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome

• APLA syndrome can lead to thrombosis in vessels. Depending upon which vessels get thrombosed we will get the manifestation like if cerebral vessel get thrombosed manifestation of stroke can be seen. It can even lead to thrombosis in placental blood vessels.

  •  Based on this size of placenta will decrease and there will be placental insufficiency.
  • Abortion can happen in first trimester due to APLA but it generally causes abortion in second trimester (M/C).
  •  Even if there is 1 abortion due to APLA but for first trimester we need 3 abortion to say it is caused due to APLA.

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