Author: Renu Maurya

Lvnchinq and Sexual asphyxia (autoerotic hanging)

Lvnchinq and Sexual asphyxia (autoerotic hanging).

Q. 1

Lynching is :

 A

Practised in North America

 B

Practised by white people on Negros

 C

Hanging publically on a tree

 D

All

Q. 1

Lynching is :

 A

Practised in North America

 B

Practised by white people on Negros

 C

Hanging publically on a tree

 D

All

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. All


Q. 2

Sexual asphyxia is associated with:

 A

Sadism

 B

Masochism

 C

Fetichism

 D

Vouyerism

Q. 2

Sexual asphyxia is associated with:

 A

Sadism

 B

Masochism

 C

Fetichism

 D

Vouyerism

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. Masochism

Sexual asphyxia (Auto erotic hanging) is usually seen in masochism & transvestismQ


Q. 3

Transvestism is :

 A

Wearing clothes of opposite sex

 B

Touching ones own private parts to others

 C

Desire for sexual intercourse with dead bodies

 D

Orgasm from visualisation part of the body of a woman

Q. 3

Transvestism is :

 A

Wearing clothes of opposite sex

 B

Touching ones own private parts to others

 C

Desire for sexual intercourse with dead bodies

 D

Orgasm from visualisation part of the body of a woman

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Wearing clothes of opposite sex

Quiz In Between


Q. 4

Lynching is:         

March 2013 (a)

 A

Accidental hanging

 B

Homicidal hanging

 C

Accidental drowning

 D

Homicidal drowning

Q. 4

Lynching is:         

March 2013 (a)

 A

Accidental hanging

 B

Homicidal hanging

 C

Accidental drowning

 D

Homicidal drowning

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. B i.e. Homicidal hanging

Lynching is an extrajudicial execution carried out by a mob, often by hanging, but also by burning at the stake or shooting, in order to punish an alleged transgressor, or to intimidate, control, or otherwise manipulate a population of people.


Q. 5

Lynching is a type of:      

AFMC 11; FMGE 13

 A

Homicidal hanging

 B

Suicidal hanging

 C

Judicial hanging

 D

Accidental hanging

Q. 5

Lynching is a type of:      

AFMC 11; FMGE 13

 A

Homicidal hanging

 B

Suicidal hanging

 C

Judicial hanging

 D

Accidental hanging

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. Homicidal hanging


Q. 6

Perversion with pain to self:

TN 09; Maharashtra 11

 A

Transvestism

 B

Fetishism

 C

Sadism

 D

Masochism

Q. 6

Perversion with pain to self:

TN 09; Maharashtra 11

 A

Transvestism

 B

Fetishism

 C

Sadism

 D

Masochism

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans. Masochism

Quiz In Between


Q. 7

Sexual asphyxia is seen in cases of:

AIIMS 06; NEET 13, 15

 A

Masochism

 B

Voyeurism

 C

Sadism

 D

Fetichism

Q. 7

Sexual asphyxia is seen in cases of:

AIIMS 06; NEET 13, 15

 A

Masochism

 B

Voyeurism

 C

Sadism

 D

Fetichism

Ans. A

Explanation:

Ans. Masochism


Q. 8

Liking to wear clothes of opposite sex:       

NEET 13

 A

Fetishism

 B

Masochism

 C

Transvestism

 D

Sadism

Q. 8

Liking to wear clothes of opposite sex:       

NEET 13

 A

Fetishism

 B

Masochism

 C

Transvestism

 D

Sadism

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. Transvestism

Quiz In Between



Lynchinq and Sexual asphyxia (autoerotic hanging).

Lynchinq and Sexual asphyxia (autoerotic hanging).


Introduction 

Lynching

It  is  homicidal  hanging  in  which a suspect,  accused or  eneffiy is  hanged  by  a rope  from  a  tree  by  the  mob.  Name is  derived  from  William  Lynch, a white  captain  in  USA, who used  to  order hanging of blacks (negroes) on the spot  without trial..

It  was practiced  in  tribal  part of  India  and some  southern  states  of America  for  sexual  crimes  or to  take  revenge.

Sexual  asphyxia  (autoerotic  hanging)

It  is  a  peculiar  type  of hanging where  the  victims are  usually  young  males  with  some  form  of abnormal  sexual  behavior, usually  masochism and transvestism.

Masochism:

  • Masochism is the practice of seeking pain because it is pleasurable.
  • Behaviors associated with Sexual Masochism Disorder can be acted out alone (e.g., binding, self-sticking pins, self-administration of electric shock, or self-mutilation)
  • Behaviors associated with a partner e.g., physical restraint, blindfolding, paddling, spanking, whipping, beating, electric shock.
  • cutting, pinning and piercing, and humiliation such as by being urinated or defecated upon, being forced to crawl and bark like a dog, or being subjected to verbal abuse.
  • Behaviors sometimes include being forced to cross-dress or being treated like an infant

Transvestism.

  • Transvestism is the practice of dressing and acting in a style or manner traditionally associated with the opposite sex.
  •  In some cultures, transvestism is practiced for religious, traditional or ceremonial reasons.
  • Partial  asphyxia  causes cerebral  distrubances  with feeling of sexual  gratification. 
  • The impaired  consciousness caused  by pressure on  carotid  vessels  or partial  obstruction  of air  passages  may lead  to  hallucinations  of an  erotic  nature.

Exam Important

Introduction 

Lynching

It  is  homicidal  hanging  in  which a suspect,  accused or  eneffiy is  hanged  by  a rope  from  a  tree  by  the  mob.  Name is  derived  from  William  Lynch, a white  captain  in  USA, who used  to  order hanging of blacks (negroes) on the spot  without trial..

It  was practiced  in  tribal  part of  India  and some  southern  states  of America  for  sexual  crimes  or to  take  revenge.

Sexual  asphyxia  (autoerotic  hanging)

It  is  a  peculiar  type  of hanging where  the  victims are  usually  young  males  with  some  form  of abnormal  sexual  behavior, usually  masochism and transvestism.

Masochism:

  • Masochism is the practice of seeking pain because it is pleasurable.
  • Behaviors associated with Sexual Masochism Disorder can be acted out alone (e.g., binding, self-sticking pins, self-administration of electric shock, or self-mutilation)
  • Behaviors associated with a partner e.g., physical restraint, blindfolding, paddling, spanking, whipping, beating, electric shock.
  • cutting, pinning and piercing, and humiliation such as by being urinated or defecated upon, being forced to crawl and bark like a dog, or being subjected to verbal abuse.
  • Behaviors sometimes include being forced to cross-dress or being treated like an infant

Transvestism.

  • Transvestism is the practice of dressing and acting in a style or manner traditionally associated with the opposite sex.
  •  In some cultures, transvestism is practiced for religious, traditional or ceremonial reasons.
  • Partial  asphyxia  causes cerebral  distrubances  with feeling of sexual  gratification. 
  • The impaired  consciousness caused  by pressure on  carotid  vessels  or partial  obstruction  of air  passages  may lead  to  hallucinations  of an  erotic  nature.
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Lynchinq and Sexual asphyxia (autoerotic hanging).

Module Below Start Quiz

Hanging: Introduction,classification, causes of death

Hanging: Introduction,classification, causes of death

Q. 1

Hanging is established by :

 A

Fracture of hyoid cartilage

 B

Fracture of thyroid cartilage

 C

Staining of saliva

 D

All

Q. 1

Hanging is established by :

 A

Fracture of hyoid cartilage

 B

Fracture of thyroid cartilage

 C

Staining of saliva

 D

All

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. Staining of saliva


Q. 2

Hanging causes large amount of injury to:

 A

Vertebral artery

 B

Carotid A

 C

Trachea

 D

Oesophagus

Q. 2

Hanging causes large amount of injury to:

 A

Vertebral artery

 B

Carotid A

 C

Trachea

 D

Oesophagus

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. Carotid artery

Reddy’s Essentials of forensic medicine & toxicology 23/e P-287 – Injury to trachea is unusual & intima of carotid artery show transverse splits with extravasation of blood.

Parikh 6/e P-3.40 – Jugular veins are occluded by 2 kg tension, carotids by 3.5 kg, trachea by 15 kg, vertebral arteries by 16.6 kg. So amount & chances of injury is also in same order


Q. 3

Hanging with the feet touching the ground is seen in:

 A

Partial hanging

 B

Complete hanging

 C

Homicidal hanging

 D

Suicidal hanging

Q. 3

Hanging with the feet touching the ground is seen in:

 A

Partial hanging

 B

Complete hanging

 C

Homicidal hanging

 D

Suicidal hanging

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Partial hanging

Quiz In Between


Q. 4

Hanging is defined as :

 A

Suspension of body a ligature, body weight acting as constricting force

 B

Suspension of body by ligature after death

 C

Obliteration of air passages by external compression

 D

Mechanical interference to respiration

Q. 4

Hanging is defined as :

 A

Suspension of body a ligature, body weight acting as constricting force

 B

Suspension of body by ligature after death

 C

Obliteration of air passages by external compression

 D

Mechanical interference to respiration

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Suspension of body, body weight acting as constricting force


Q. 5

When a person has suspended himself by applying ligature around neck so that the point of suspension (knot) is situated in the region of the occiput. Such a hanging is called as:

 A

Typical

 B

Atypical

 C

Partial

 D

Incomplete

Q. 5

When a person has suspended himself by applying ligature around neck so that the point of suspension (knot) is situated in the region of the occiput. Such a hanging is called as:

 A

Typical

 B

Atypical

 C

Partial

 D

Incomplete

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Typical Hanging


Q. 6

The “Knot” in judicial hanging is placed at

 A

The back of the neck

 B

The side of the neck

 C

Below the chin

 D

Choice of hangman

Q. 6

The “Knot” in judicial hanging is placed at

 A

The back of the neck

 B

The side of the neck

 C

Below the chin

 D

Choice of hangman

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. Side of the neck

Quiz In Between


Q. 7

Transverse tear in intima of carotid arteries may be seen in:

March 2003

 A

Partial hanging

 B

Judicial hanging

 C

Bansdola

 D

Garroting

Q. 7

Transverse tear in intima of carotid arteries may be seen in:

March 2003

 A

Partial hanging

 B

Judicial hanging

 C

Bansdola

 D

Garroting

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. B i.e. Judicial hangin


Q. 8

In simple hanging, the knot comes to rest at the:

September 2009

 

 A

Occiput

 B

Chin

 C

Angle of mandible

 D

Below the cheek

Q. 8

In simple hanging, the knot comes to rest at the:

September 2009

 

 A

Occiput

 B

Chin

 C

Angle of mandible

 D

Below the cheek

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. C: Angle of mandible

In most hanging deaths, the ligature and ligature mark lie above the thyroid prominence, with a point of suspension usually behind one ear.

Frontal knots are unusual.

The appearance of the ligature mark varies with the type of ligature used and with the physical characteristics of the individual neck. Soft broad ligatures may not leave any recognizable marks. In most cases, the ligature does not completely encii le the neck.

Quiz In Between



Hanging: Introduction,classification, causes of death

Hanging: Introduction,classification, causes of death


Introduction

Hanging is that form of violent asphyxial deaths, which is caused by the suspension of the  body by a ligature which  encircles the neck, the constricting force being the weight of the body.

Classification:

Depending on the degree of suspension:

Complete hanging: 

  • When the whole body is suspended from the ligature material and no portion of the body is touching the ground.

Partial hanging: 

  • As the name suggests, the body is partially suspended, the toe or feet or either part of the body touching the ground. 
  • The deceased may be in kneeling down position, sitting position etc.
  • the weight of the head is where the constricting force comes from.

Depending on position of the knot of ligature:

Typical hanging: 

  • Where the ligature runs from the midline, above the thyroid cartilage.
  • symmetrically upwards on both sides of the neck(judicial hanging), to the occipital region.
  • The knot is placed over the central part of the back of neck.

Atypical hanging:  The knot is anywhere other than the central part of the back of neck. Most common

site of knot is near one side of mastoid process or angle of mandible.

 Types of knot: Knot tied may be :
1) Fixed noose: Rope is knotted to form fixed knot. This is the most cotnmon pattern. ligature mark is in inverted V shape.

2) Running  noose: One  end  of  the  rope  is  passed  through  the  loop  made from  the  other end, ligature  mark is  horizontal.

Depending on the manner of hanging:

  • Suicidal hanging.
  • Homicidal hanging.
  • Accidental hanging for e.g. autoerotic asphyxia.
  • Judicial hanging.

Causes  of death

Death  may occur  from  :

  • Cerebral ischemia and anoxia due to compression of carotid artery.
  • It require 3-5 kg weight of suspension-
  • Tear in  intima  of carotid  artery  is  known  as  Amussat’s sign.
  • Cerebral  congestion  due to  compression  of jugular veins.  It  requires  only 2 kg weight.
  • Asphyxia due to  compression  of  airways  (larynx  and  trachea).  It  requires  15 kg weight.
  • Neurogenic shock/vagal  inhibition (due  to  pressure  on  vagus  nerve  or carotid  sinuses)
  • Fracture  dislocation  of upper  cervical  vertebrae with damage  to  spinal  cord  and brainstem :  especially in  judicial hanging.
  • Any  combination  of  the  above.

* Combined asphyxia  and cerebral  venous  congestion  is  the  most  common  cause  of death.

Exam Important

Complete hanging: 

  • When the whole body is suspended from the ligature material and no portion of the body is touching the ground.

Partial hanging: 

  • As the name suggests, the body is partially suspended, the toe or feet or either part of the body touching the ground. 
  • The deceased may be in kneeling down position, sitting position etc.
  • the weight of the head is where the constricting force comes from.

Depending on position of the knot:

Typical hanging: 

  • Where the ligature runs from the midline, above the thyroid cartilage.
  • symmetrically upwards on both sides of the neck(judicial hanging), to the occipital region.
  • The knot is placed over the central part of the back of neck.

Atypical hanging:  The knot is anywhere other than the central part of the back of neck.

Death  may occur  from  :

  • Cerebral ischemia and anoxia due to compression of carotid artery.
  • It require 3-5 kg weight of suspension-
  • Tear in  intima  of carotid  artery  is  known  as  Amussat’s sign.
  • Cerebral  congestion  due to  compression  of jugular veins.  It  requires  only 2 kg weight.
  • Asphyxia due to  compression  of  airways  (larynx  and  trachea).  It  requires  15 kg weight.
  • Neurogenic shock/vagal  inhibition (due  to  pressure  on  vagus  nerve  or carotid  sinuses)
  • Fracture  dislocation  of upper  cervical  vertebrae with damage  to  spinal  cord  and brainstem :  especially in  judicial hanging.
  • Any  combination  of  the  above.

* Combined asphyxia  and cerebral  venous  congestion  is  the  most  common  cause  of death.

Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Hanging: Introduction,classification, causes of death

Module Below Start Quiz

Asphyxial Death

Asphyxial Death

Q. 1

A method of homicidal smothering and traumatic asphyxia is known is :

 A

Choking

 B

Gagging

 C

Burking

 D

Overlying

Q. 1

A method of homicidal smothering and traumatic asphyxia is known is :

 A

Choking

 B

Gagging

 C

Burking

 D

Overlying

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. Burking


Q. 2

All may cause traumatic asphyxia, except:   

Al 09

 A

Railway accident

 B

Road traffic accident

 C

Accidental strangulation

 D

Stampede

Q. 2

All may cause traumatic asphyxia, except:   

Al 09

 A

Railway accident

 B

Road traffic accident

 C

Accidental strangulation

 D

Stampede

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. Accidental strangulation


Q. 3

All of the following can cause traumatic Asphyxia, except ‑

 A

Railway Accident

 B

Road Traffic Accident

 C

Accidental strangulation

 D

Stampede in crowd

Q. 3

All of the following can cause traumatic Asphyxia, except ‑

 A

Railway Accident

 B

Road Traffic Accident

 C

Accidental strangulation

 D

Stampede in crowd

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Accidental strangulation

Traumatic asphyxia : It is a form of asphyxia which is caused from respiratory arrest due to mechanical fixation of chest resulting from blunt trauma to chest or external pressure on the chest, abdomen or back which prevents normal respiratory movements of the chest wall. It may be due to :‑

a) Stampede in crowd (riot crus or human pile death).

b) Crush by heavy object e.g. (i) road traffic accident, (ii) railway accident, (iii) overturn of tractor in farm and (iv) fall of earth, stone etc. in mine or in a building collapse


Q. 4

Autopsy of a female brought dead to the casualty was performed. No specific signs were seen. On external examination, only a mark on the chin was seen as shorvn below and on internal examination. following appearance was seen. What is the likely cause of death? 

 A

 Smothering

                 

 B

Throttling

 C

Hanging   

 D

Ligature strangulation

Q. 4

Autopsy of a female brought dead to the casualty was performed. No specific signs were seen. On external examination, only a mark on the chin was seen as shorvn below and on internal examination. following appearance was seen. What is the likely cause of death? 

 A

 Smothering

                 

 B

Throttling

 C

Hanging   

 D

Ligature strangulation

Ans. B

Explanation:

ans- option B

On external examination, a single abrasion is seen, likely due to assailant’s fingers grasping the neck. Bruising of the neck is seen as well. On internal examination, we can see contused tissues of the neck with bleeding from strap muscles. All these features are suggestive of throttling. Hanging can be ruled out in absence of ligature mark

Quiz In Between



Asphyxial Death

Asphyxial Death


Introduction

  • Asphyxia  is  defined  as  interference  with respiration  or due to  lack  of  O,  in  respired  air,  due to  which  the  tissue  or organ  is  deprived  of O2, and  there  is  failure  to  eliminate  CO2, causing  unconsciousness  or death.
  • Hanging  is  the  form  of  asphlxia,  causedby suspension  of  the  body by a ligature  that  encircles  the  neckthe  constricting  force  being  weight  of the  body.
  • Asphyxial death is diagnosed  by triad  of  the  following 
  1.  Cyanosis 
  2. Congestion  :  Due  to  increased  venous  pressure.
  3.  Petechial  hemorrhages  (tardieu’s  spots)  :  Present  above  the  level  of obstruction  like  scalp,  eyebrows, face in  hanging or strangulation  and  above  the  level  of compression  in  traumatic  asphyxia.
  • They  are  generally  Found  in  those  parts where  capillaries  are  least  supported, e.g. face,  conjunctivae,  epiglottis,  serous  surface  of  heart  and  lungs,  meninges  and  thymus.
  • A method of homicidal smothering and traumatic asphyxia is known is Burking (To execute (someone) by suffocation so as to leave the body intact and suitable for dissection.)
  • Tardieu’s  spots are  not pathiganic  of  asphlxia,  as they  are also  found  in  bleeding disorders  (scurvy,  leukemia);
  • coronary  thrombosis;  electrocution;  poisoning,  anticoagulant  therapy  anil  blood  dyscrasia  (thrombocytopenia).
  • Tardieu’s  spots  are  not  found  in  some  form  of  asphlxia,  e.g.  drowning.

mechanical  causes  of asphyxia  which  can  cause  violent

  asphyxial  death.  These  mechanicai causes  can  be  divided  into 

  1. hanging,
  2. strangulation,
  3. suffocation,
  4. drowning

Exam Important

  • Asphyxial death is diagnosed  by triad  of  the  following 
  1.  Cyanosis 
  2. Congestion  :  Due  to  increased  venous  pressure.
  3.  Petechial  hemorrhages  (tardieu’s  spots)  :  Present  above  the  level  of obstruction  like  scalp,  eyebrows, face in  hanging or strangulation  and  above  the  level  of compression  in  traumatic  asphyxia.
  • Asphyxial death is diagnosed  by triad  of  the  following 
  1.  Cyanosis 
  2. Congestion  :  Due  to  increased  venous  pressure.
  3.  Petechial  hemorrhages  (tardieu’s  spots)  :  Present  above  the  level  of obstruction  like  scalp,  eyebrows, face in  hanging or strangulation  and  above  the  level  of compression  in  traumatic  asphyxia.
  • They  are  generally  Found  in  those  parts where  capillaries  are  least  supported, e.g. face,  conjunctivae,  epiglottis,  serous  surface  of  heart  and  lungs,  meninges  and  thymus.
  • A method of homicidal smothering and traumatic asphyxia is known is Burking (To execute (someone) by suffocation so as to leave the body intact and suitable for dissection.)
  • Tardieu’s  spots are  not pathiganic  of  asphlxia,  as they  are also  found  in  bleeding disorders  (scurvy,  leukemia);
  • coronary  thrombosis;  electrocution;  poisoning,  anticoagulant  therapy  anil  blood  dyscrasia  (thrombocytopenia).
  • Tardieu’s  spots  are  not  found  in  some  form  of  asphlxia,  e.g.  drowning.

mechanical  causes  of asphyxia  which  can  cause  violent  asphyxial  death.  These  mechanicai causes  can  be  divided  into 

  1. hanging,
  2. strangulation,
  3. suffocation,
  4. drowning

 

Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Asphyxial Death

Module Below Start Quiz

Preservation of Organs

PRESERVATION OF ORGANS,

Q. 1

The dead body of a murdered person is brought for preservation in mortuary. Which of the following statements is not correct?

 A

The body should be stored averagely at 40C

 B

The body can be embalmed before postmortem.

 C

The body should be never undressed before the forensic doctor has seen it.

 D

The body can be stored at –200C to preserve it for long duration.

Q. 1

The dead body of a murdered person is brought for preservation in mortuary. Which of the following statements is not correct?

 A

The body should be stored averagely at 40C

 B

The body can be embalmed before postmortem.

 C

The body should be never undressed before the forensic doctor has seen it.

 D

The body can be stored at –200C to preserve it for long duration.

Ans. B

Explanation:

B i.e. The body can be embalmed before postmortem

Body can be embalmed after autopsyQ (not before)


Q. 2

Preservation of brain is not required in

 A

Alkaloid poisoning

 B

Organophosphorus poisoning

 C

Volatile organic poisoning

 D

Heavy metal poisoning

Q. 2

Preservation of brain is not required in

 A

Alkaloid poisoning

 B

Organophosphorus poisoning

 C

Volatile organic poisoning

 D

Heavy metal poisoning

Ans. D

Explanation:

D i.e. Heavy metal


Q. 3

Rectified spirit not used as preservation in case of

 A

Phenol

 B

Cyanide

 C

Insecticides

 D

Aluminium phosphide

Q. 3

Rectified spirit not used as preservation in case of

 A

Phenol

 B

Cyanide

 C

Insecticides

 D

Aluminium phosphide

Ans. A

Explanation:

A i.e. Phenol


Q. 4

Sodium fluoride may be used for preservation of :

 A

Cyanide

 B

Arsenic

 C

Alcohol

 D

Urine

Q. 4

Sodium fluoride may be used for preservation of :

 A

Cyanide

 B

Arsenic

 C

Alcohol

 D

Urine

Ans. C

Explanation:

C i.e. Alcohol

Sodium fluride should be added to urine or vitrous humor, if alcohol estimationQ is required; and also to samples for analysis for cocaine, cyanides & CO.

Quiz In Between



Preservation of Organs

PRESERVATION OF ORGANS


INTRODUCTION

Circumstances and mortuary Preservation:

  • When the medical officer suspects the presence of poison by its smell or by some other evidence while conducting autopsy.
  • When the cause of death could not be found out after a full autopsy and there is no natural disease or injury
  • In decomposed bodies,  In Spot death in burns ,When an investigating officer requests so.
  • The body should be stored averagely at 40C.
  • The body should be never undressed before the forensic doctor has seen it.
  • The body can be stored at 200C to preserve it for long duration.

Routine Viscera Preserved

  • Stomach with its contents and proximal 1/3rd (30 cms) of the intestine with its contents.
  • Half of each kidney and 500 gm. of liver.
  • Liver is the most important tissue because it concentrates many substances.
  • Heart- Strychnine, Digitalis.
  • Brain- Neurotoxic poisons, alkaloids, volatile organic poisons. Preservation of brain is not required in Heavy metal poisoning.
  • Bile- Narcotic drugs, cocaine, methadone, Glutathione, Barbiturates, Tranquilizers, Opiates.
  • Lung- Gaseous poison, HCN, Alcohol, Chloroform.
  • Vitreous Humour- Alcohol, Chloroform. (Vitreous Humour is preserved by keeping at 4ºC for 48 hours; normally preservative is of no value. Though could be preserved with sodium fluoride)
  • Bone- Arsenic, Antimony, Thallium, Radium.
  • Uterus- Chemical Abortion
  • Skin- Hypodermic injections, snake bite, Corrosives.
  • Hair:-  (20-30  in  number or 5 gm), Nails- Heavy Metal Poisoning. Subacute and chronic poisoing  by  heavy metals e.g. arsenic, antimony,  radium,  thallium
  • Spinal Cord- Strychnine Poisoning
  • CSF- Alcohol intoxication (in 10 mg NaF/ml of fluid)
  • Urine- Narcotics, Alcohol, barbiturate  and  opium.
  • Body Fat- Endrin , DDT(Organo Chlorines).  (10  gm  from  abdomen  or  perinephric  region)  :  Pesticides  and insectisides  (e.g. organophosphates  poisoning).
  • Muscle- When internal organs are badly putrefied.
  • Collection of  BLOOD : At least 10 ml collected in a bottle, preferably from peripheral site such as neck, arm & leg and also from subclavian vessels ? C.S.F. : From cisternal puncture , base of brain & puncture of lateral ventricles ? BONE
  • MARROW : from sternum, ileum, femur & vertebrae ? URINE : from suprapubic puncture. ? MUSCLES : especially thigh muscles.
  • BONE : 200 gm. Or 10cm, conventionally from shaft of femur till mid shaft ? NAILS : removed from their nail bed ? SKIN : a piece of 2.5 cm sq. from the affected area in case of corrosive poisoning and a control is also preserved from the opposite side of the body.

Preservatives  for  specific  poisons

  • Saturated  sodium  chloride:  In  all  cases  ofpoisoning  excluding  corrosive acids,  except  carbolic  acids  (phenol),  alkalis, corrosive  sublimate  and  aconite.
  • 30  mg  potassium  oxalate  (anticoagulant)  and  10  ml sodium fluoride (enzyme  inhibitor): Blood in  suspected poisoning  including  alcohol  but excluding  oxalic  acid,  ethylene  glycol,  fluoride,  carbon  monoxid.
  • Rectified  spirit  :  All  except  in  cases  of poisoning  by phenol, phosphorus, paraldehyde, kerosene, formaldehyde,  formic  acid,  alcohol,  acetic acid, chloroform,  chloral  hydrate, ether.
  • Glycerine :  Specimen for  virological examination.
  • I0  mg/ml Na/K, fluride and  3 mg K-oxalate: For preserving  blood;  fluride  is  also  added  to  CSR vitreous humor, and urine  if  alcohol estimation  is  required;  and  also  in  analysis of  cocaine,  cyanide  and carbon  monoxide.

Exam Important

  • In decomposed bodies,  In Spot death in burns ,When an investigating officer requests so.
  • The body should be stored averagely at 40C.
  • The body should be never undressed before the forensic doctor has seen it.
  • The body can be stored at 200C to preserve it for long duration.
  • Brain- Neurotoxic poisons, alkaloids, volatile organic poisons. Preservation of brain is not required in Heavy metal poisoning.
  • Bile- Narcotic drugs, cocaine, methadone, Glutathione, Barbiturates, Tranquilizers, Opiates
  • Vitreous Humour- Alcohol, Chloroform. (Vitreous Humour is preserved by keeping at 4ºC for 48 hours; normally preservative is of no value. Though could be preserved with sodium fluoride).
  • Saturated  sodium  chloride:  In  all  cases  ofpoisoning  excluding  corrosive acids,  except  carbolic  acids  (phenol),  alkalis, corrosive  sublimate  and  aconite.
  • 30  mg  potassium  oxalate  (anticoagulant)  and  10  ml sodium fluoride (enzyme  inhibitor): Blood in  suspected poisoning  including  alcohol  but excluding  oxalic  acid,  ethylene  glycol,  fluoride,  carbon  monoxid.
  • Rectified  spirit  :  All  except  in  cases  of poisoning  by phenol, phosphorus, paraldehyde, kerosene, formaldehyde,  formic  acid,  alcohol,  acetic acid, chloroform,  chloral  hydrate, ether.
  • Glycerine :  Specimen for  virological examination.
  • I0  mg/ml Na/K, fluride and  3 mg K-oxalate: For preserving  blood;  fluride  is  also  added  to  CSR vitreous humor, and urine  if  alcohol estimation  is  required;  and  also  in  analysis of  cocaine,  cyanide  and carbon  monoxide.

 

Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on PRESERVATION OF ORGANS

Module Below Start Quiz

Somatic ,molecular and Sudden Death.

Somatic ,molecular and Sudden Death.

Q. 1

True about Molecular death:

 A

Same as cellular death

 B

Same as cellular death as indicated by rigor mortis

 C

Indicated by stopping of heart function and flat ECG

 D

a and b

Q. 1

True about Molecular death:

 A

Same as cellular death

 B

Same as cellular death as indicated by rigor mortis

 C

Indicated by stopping of heart function and flat ECG

 D

a and b

Ans. D

Explanation:

A i.e. Same as cellular death; B i.e. Same as cellular death as indicated by rigor mortis


Q. 2

All are features of somatic death, except:      

NEET 14

 A

Cessation of respiration

 B

Cessation of heart

 C

Non-responding muscles

 D

No response to external stimuli

Q. 2

All are features of somatic death, except:      

NEET 14

 A

Cessation of respiration

 B

Cessation of heart

 C

Non-responding muscles

 D

No response to external stimuli

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. Non-responding muscles


Q. 3

Molecular death is:         

PGI 10; Kerala 11

 A

Complete and irreversible cessation of brain, heart and lungs function

 B

Death of individual tissues and cells after somatic death

 C

Total loss of EEG activity, but heart is functioning

 D

Vitals functions are at low pitch that cannot be detected by clinical examination

Q. 3

Molecular death is:         

PGI 10; Kerala 11

 A

Complete and irreversible cessation of brain, heart and lungs function

 B

Death of individual tissues and cells after somatic death

 C

Total loss of EEG activity, but heart is functioning

 D

Vitals functions are at low pitch that cannot be detected by clinical examination

Ans. B

Explanation:

Ans. Death of individual tissues and cells after somatic death

Quiz In Between


Q. 4

Sudden death occurring after maxillary sinus irrigation is due to:      

DNB 10

 A

Fat embolism

 B

Pulmonary embolism

 C

Air embolism

 D

Maxillary artery thrombosis

Q. 4

Sudden death occurring after maxillary sinus irrigation is due to:      

DNB 10

 A

Fat embolism

 B

Pulmonary embolism

 C

Air embolism

 D

Maxillary artery thrombosis

Ans. C

Explanation:

Ans. Air embolism


Q. 5

Cause of sudden death in cold water due to method shown in photograph is ? 

 A

Asphyxia.

 B

Loss of consciousness.

 C

Head injury.

 D

Vagal inhibition.

Q. 5

Cause of sudden death in cold water due to method shown in photograph is ? 

 A

Asphyxia.

 B

Loss of consciousness.

 C

Head injury.

 D

Vagal inhibition.

Ans. D

Explanation:

Ans:D.)Vagal inhibition.

The mode of death shown in the picture above represents drowning in cold water.

TYPES OF DROWNING

Wet Drowning

  • In this the water is inhaled into lungs . This is of two types, i.e. Fresh water and Salt water drowning.
    • Haemodilatation (Fresh water drowning)
    • Haemoconcentration (Salt water drowning)

 Dry Drowning

  • Water does not enter the lungs, but death results from immediate sustained laryngeal spasm due to inrush of water into the nasopharynx or larynx.

Secondary Drowning or Near Drowning/Postimmersion Syndrome

  • Near Drowning is defined as initial survival at least beyond 24 hours of an individual after suffocation due to submersion in fluid. It does not necessarily lead to long-term survival and is associated with secondary complications, which require further medical management.

Immersion Syndrome or Hydrocution

  • Hydrocution or immersion syndrome refers to sudden death in water due to vagal inhibition as a result of:
    • cold water stimulating the nerve endings of the surface of the body
    • horizontal entry into the water with a consequent strike on the epigastrium
    • cold water entering eardrums, nasal passage, and the pharynx and larynx which cause mucosal nerve ending stimulation.

Q. 6

All are signs of somatic death except ‑

 A

Cessation of respiration

 B

Cessation of heart

 C

Non-responding muscles

 D

No response to external stimuli

Q. 6

All are signs of somatic death except ‑

 A

Cessation of respiration

 B

Cessation of heart

 C

Non-responding muscles

 D

No response to external stimuli

Ans. C

Explanation:

  Ans. is ‘c’ i.e., Non-responding muscles

  • Death denotes death of human being (46 IPC). It is defined as cessation of life or cesation to exist. Death is of two types (1) somatic death (systemic death or clinical death) and (2) molecular death (cellular death).

Somatic death (systemic death or clinical death)

  • It is the complete and irreversible stoppage of the circulation, respiration and brain functions (bishop’s tripod of life). Somatic death is associated with immediate signs of death :‑
  1. Permanent and complete cessation of function of brain and flat electric EEG with no response to external stimuli; i.e. brain death.
  2. Permanent and complete cessation of function of heart and flat ECG.
  3. Permanent and complete cessation of function of lungs.
  • Somatic death is due to stopped aerobic processes. However, anaerobic enzymatic processes are still continuing, hence (i) muscles still respond to mechanical, electrical and thermal stimuli, (ii) pupils still respond to miotics and mydriatics.

Molecular death (cellular death)

  • It occurs after somatic death. It refers to death of all individual cells. It occurs when even anaerobic processes stop, due to non availability of ATP. At this stage :
  1. Muscles do not respond to stimuli.
  2. Pupils do not respond to stimuli or drugs.
  3. There are early signs and late signs of death :
  • Early signs : Changes in skin and eye, cooling of the body, post-mortem lividity, changes in muscles (e.g. primary relaxation, rigor mortis).
  • Late signs : Decomposition (putrefaction), adipocere fromation and mummification.

4.  Molecular death of various organs occur at different intervals after somatic death :

  1. Nervous tissue —> After 5 minutes.
  2. Liver —> After 15 minutes.
  3. Heart —> After 45 minutes.
  4. Kidney —> After 1 hours.
  5. Muscles —> After 3 hours.
  6. Cornea —> After 6 hours.
  7. Blood After 6 hours.

Quiz In Between



Somatic ,molecular and Sudden Death.

Somatic ,molecular and Sudden Death.


Introduction

  • Thanatology  is  the  branch  of science  which  deals  with  study of death,  it  deals with death in all  aspects
  • Death denotes  death  of human  being (46  IPC).  It is  defined  as cessation  of  life  or  cesation  to  exist.  Death is  of two  types
  1. somatic  death  (systemic  death  or  clinical death)
  2. molecular  death  (cellular  death).

Somatic death (svstemic  death  or  clinical death)

  • It  is  the  complete  and irreversible  stoppage  of  the  circulation, respiration and  brain  functions (bishop’s  tripod  of life).
  • Somatic  death  is  associated  with  immediate  signs  of  death  :-i)  Permanent  and  complete  cessation  of  function  of brain  and  flat  electric EEG(PGI03)  with no  response  to  external brain  death.
  • Somatic  death  is  due  to  stopped  aerobic  processes.  However,  anaerobic  enzymatic  processes  are  still  continuing,  hence : Muscles still  respond  to  mechanical, elecfiical and  thermal  stimuli.
  • Absent  of  brainstem  reflexes  :  Pupillary  reflex,  oculovestibular reflex, corneol  reflex, pharyngeal and tracheal  reflexes.

Molecular  death (cellular  death)

  • It occurs  after  somatic  death.  lt  refers  to  death  of all  individual  cells.
  • It occurs  when even  anaerobic  processes  stop, due to  non  availability  of  ATP.
  • Early signs : Changes in  skin  and eye,  cooling  of  the  body, post-mortem  lividity,  changes  in muscles  (e.g. primary  relaxation,  rigor  mortis).

Suspended  animation  (sudden  death)

  • It  is  apparent  death. i.e. signs  of life  are  not  found  as the  functions  are  interrupted  for  some time  or reduced  to  minimum.
  • The person is  not dead, i.e.  there  is  no somatic  death, brain death or molecular  (cellular)  death.
  • Life continues  and  resuscitation  is  successful  in such  cases
  • The condition  lasts  from  few seconds  to  l/2  an hour  or more.
  • It  may be  found  in  Electrocution, Drowning.
  • Sudden death occurring after maxillary sinus irrigation is due to Air embolism

Hydrocution or immersion syndrome refers to sudden death in water due to vagal inhibition as a result of:

  • cold water stimulating the nerve endings of the surface of the body
  • horizontal entry into the water with a consequent strike on the epigastrium
  • cold water entering eardrums, nasal passage, and the pharynx and larynx which cause mucosal nerve ending stimulation

Exam Important

Somatic death (svstemic  death  or  clinical death)

  • It  is  the  complete  and irreversible  stoppage  of  the  circulation, respiration and  brain  functions (bishop’s  tripod  of life).
  • Somatic  death  is  associated  with  immediate  signs  of  death  :-i)  Permanent  and  complete  cessation  of  function  of brain  and  flat  electric EEG(PGI03)  with no  response  to  external brain  death.
  • Somatic  death  is  due  to  stopped  aerobic  processes.  However,  anaerobic  enzymatic  processes  are  still  continuing,  hence : Muscles still  respond  to  mechanical, elecfiical and  thermal  stimuli.
  • Absent  of  brainstem  reflexes  :  Pupillary  reflex,  oculovestibular reflex, corneol  reflex, pharyngeal and tracheal  reflexes.

Molecular  death (cellular  death)

  • It occurs  after  somatic  death.  lt  refers  to  death  of all  individual  cells.
  • It occurs  when even  anaerobic  processes  stop, due to  non  availability  of  ATP.
  • Early signs : Changes in  skin  and eye,  cooling  of  the  body, post-mortem  lividity,  changes  in muscles  (e.g. primary  relaxation,  rigor  mortis).

Hydrocution or immersion syndrome refers to sudden death in water due to vagal inhibition as a result of:

 

Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Somatic ,molecular and Sudden Death.

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