- Oxidation of Sugar- Under mild oxidation, aldehyde group is oxidised to Aldonic Acid.
- *Glucose to Gluconic Acid
- Mannose to Mannonic Acid
- Galactose to Galactonic Acid.
- Oxidation of aldehyde group from glucose in blood glucose estimation results in Gluconic Acid.
- Oxidation of terminal alcohol group leads to the production of Glucuronic acid.
- Under strong oxidation-
- Glucose to glucosaccharic acid
- Mannose to mannaric acid
- Galactose to mucic acid
|Mannose||Mannitol||Reduces intracranial pressure by forced diuresis|
|Galactose||Dulcitol/Galactitol||Osmotic effect causes cataract in Galactosemia &Diabetes|
|Fructose||Sorbitol and Mannitol|
- Deoxy Sugar- Oxygen of the hydroxyl group may be removed to form deoxy sugars.
- Deoxyribose– is an important part of nucleic acid.
- Oxygen is removed from the 2nd position
- Feulgen Staining is specific for 2-deoxy sugar(DNA) in tissues.(*Schiff’s agent)
- L-fuctose is present in the blood antigen.
- Amino Sugars– Amino group substituted for hydroxyl group in the second carbon atom of monosacharides to form Amino Sugars.
|Glucosamine||Seen in hyluronic acid, heparin & blood group substance.|
|Galactosamine (Chondrosamine)||Present in chondroitin of cartilage, tendons & bone.|
|Mannosamine||Constituent of glycoproteins.|
- An unusual amino sugar with 9 carbon atom is Sialic Acid.
- The principal Sialic Acid found in human body is N Acetyl Neuraminic Acid (NANA) and is derivative f N-acetylmannose and pyruvic acid.
- Erythromycin is an antibiotic which contains amino sugar.
- GLYCOSIDES- When the monosaccharide is condensed with an alcohol, phenol or sterol by O- Glycosidic Linkage to form glycoside.
- Digitonin is a cardiac stimulant.
- Quabain in cardiac effect
- Phlorhizin produces renal damage.
- Antibiotic- Streptomycin, Puromycin.
- Benedict’s Reaction- Standard lab test to diagnose Diabetes mellitus.
Shapes of Osazones-
- Needle-shaped/Broomstick/sheaves of corn – Glucose, Fructose, Mannose
- Pincushion with pins/Hedgehog/ Flower of Touch –me-not – Lactose
- Sunflower Petal-shaped – Maltose
METHOD OF ESTIMATION OF GLUCOSE-
TESTS FOR CARBOHYDRATES
|General test for all carbohydrates||Molisch test|
|Tests for reducing substances||Benedict’s Test|
|Test to differentiate monosaccharides and Diasaccharides||
|Test to differentiate Aldoses and Ketoses||
Rapid Furfural Test
|Test to detect Deoxy Sugar||Feulgen Staining|
|Test for Pentoses||Bial’s Test|
|Test for Galactose||Mucic Acid Test|
- Reaction In Glucose oxidase and Perioxidase Method is- (GOD-POD)
- Glucose + H2O2 + O2 GOD_→ Gluconic Acid + H2O2
- 2H2O2 + 4 aminoantipyrine + PHB POD → Quinoneminine dye + H2O (RED COLOR)
- Derived Sugars include- Acid sugars, Sugar alcohols, Deoxy sugars, Amino sugars, Glycosides, Furfural derivatives.
- The immediate precursor of Glucosamine is Fructose 6 phosphate.
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Derived Sugars
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