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Anatomy
CLAVICLE
SHOULDER JOINT
HUMERUS BONE
RADIAL NERVE
MOVEMENTS OF SHOULDER JOINT
MEDIAN NERVE PALSY
ULNAR NERVE
MEDIAN NERVE
BRACHIAL ARTERY
AXILLARY ARTERY
MUSCLES OF PECTORAL REGION
TRIGEMINAL (V) NERVE
TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA
MAXILLARY NERVE
MANDIBULAR NERVE
OPHTHALMIC (V1) NERVE
SCALP & SUPERFICIAL TEMPORAL REGIION
MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION
BELL’S PALSY
MUSCLES OF MASTICATION
EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLES
FACIAL (VII) NERVE
Facial Nerve: Functional Components
GENICULATE GANGLION
AZYGOUS VENOUS SYSTEM
WALLS OF ORBIT
TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT
SYNDROMES & DIAGNOSTIC TEST ASSOCIATED WITH FACIAL NERVE
MUSCLES OF TONGUE
FACE
LARYNX
LIGAMENTS OF LARYNX & EPIGLOTTIS
LARYNGEAL MEMBRANE & MUCOSA
MUSCLES OF LARYNX
MAXILLARY SINUS
FRONTAL SINUS
NASAL SEPTUM/ MEDIAL NASAL WALL
LATERAL NASAL WALL
FORAMENS OF SKULL
PALATE
Tympanic Membrane Of Ear/ EARDRUM
MIDDLE EAR
MASTOID ANTRUM
INTERNAL EAR
LARYNGEAL JOINTS & SPACES
Fluid Of Inner Ear
ANATOMY OF HEART
HEART-ARTERIAL SUPPLY, NERVE SUPPLY, VEINS OF HEART
LIVER
CHAMBERS OF HEART
SUPRAHYOID MUSCLES
INFRAHYOID MUSCLES
PERITONEAL FOLDS- LESSER OMENTUM & GREATER OMENTUM
Ventricular system
INFERIOR VENA CAVA
PERITONEAL CAVITY- LESSEER SAC & GREATER SAC
PORTAL VEIN
EXTRAHEPATIC BILIARY SYSTEM
INGUINAL CANAL
INGUINAL LYMPH NODE
KIDNEY- STRUCTURE, RENAL FASCIA & VASCULATURE
KIDNEY
Hypoglossal Nerve
OPTIC (II) NERVE
GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE
LUMBAR PLEXUS
SACRAL PLEXUS
SCIATIC NERVE
FEMORAL NERVE
Arterial Supply of Lower Limb
TIBIAL NERVE
VENOUS DRAINAGE OF LOWER LIMB
MUSCULAR COMPARTMENT OF LEG
HIP JOINT MOIVEMENTS
FEMORAL SHEATH
OBTURATOR NERVE
SAPHENOUS NERVE
FEMORAL TRIANGLE
HIP JOINT
ADDUCTOR CANAL
BONES OF FOOT
ANKLE JOINT- LIGAMENTS
MOVEMENTS OF FOOT & ANKLE
MUSCLES OF FOOT
LIGAMENTS OF KNEE JOINT
KNEE JOINT
SCIATIC FORAMEN
APPLIED ANATOMY OF MUSCLES OF UPPER LIMB
STOMACH
IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT OSTEOLOGY OF HEAD & NECK
GENITOURINARY EMBRYOLOGY
ANTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL
PHARYNGEAL APPARATUS
PHARYNGEAL/ BRACHIAL ARCH DERIVATIVES
DERIVATIVES OF ECTODERM
DERIVATIVES OF MESODERM
DERIVATIVES OF ENDODERM
GAMETOGENESIS- SPERMATOGENESIS
GAMETOGENESIS- OOGENESIS
THYROID GLAND
PARATHYROID GLANDS
PITUITARY GLAND
OLFACTORY (I) NERVE
VAGUS (X) NERVE
ACCESSORY (XI) NERVE
FACIAL NERVE INJURY
BONES OF HAND- CARPAL
BRACHIAL PLEXUS
ERB’S PARALYSIS
CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME
ANATOMY OF LUNGS
FISSURES & LOBES OF LUNGS
CONDUCTING SYSTEM OF HEART
AORTA
SUPERIOR VENA- CAVA
SUPRARENAL GLAND
URETER
FUNCTIONAL AREAS OF CEREBRAL CORTEX
CERVICAL VERTEBRAE
IMPORTANT JOINTS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN
SPLEEN
PANCREAS
POSTERIOR TRIANGLE OF NECK
SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND
ANTERIOR TRIANGLE OF NECK
SEMICIRCULAR CANALS OF INNER EAR
CONTENTS OF TYMPANIC CAVITY/ MIDDLE EAR
MUSCLES OF PECTORAL REGION & AXILLA
NERVE SUPPLY OF MUSCLES OF UPPER LIMB
ULNAR ARTERY
RADIAL ARTERY
MUSCULOCUTANEOUS NERVE
AXILLARY NERVE
RADIAL NERVE PALSY
KLUMPKE’S PARALYSIS
BONES OF HAND- METACARPAL
BONES OF THE FOREARM- RADIUS
BONES OF THE FOREARM- ULNA
THORACIC DUCT
TRACHEA
OESOPHAGUS
EXTRAPULMONARY & INTRAPULMONARY BRONCHUS
ARTERIAL SUPPLY & VENOUS DRAINAGE OF LUNG
HILUM OF LUNG
COMMON PERIONEAL NERVE / FIBULAR NERVE
TIBIA BONE
FEMUR BONE
DIAPHRAGM
TONSILS (Palatine/ Faucial Tonsils)
WHITE MATTER OF CEREBRUM
EXOCRINE GLANDS

Physiology
SCAPULA
RENIN- ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM
ANION GAP
ATRIAL NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE
SPERMATOGENESIS
PARATHROMONE
CHOLECYSTOKININ (CCK)
BASAL GANGLIA
PHYSIOLOGY OF EXERCISE
OXYGEN DISSOCIATION CURVE
SPIROMETRY
CEREBELLUM – DIVISIONS & FUNCTIONS
LIMBIC SYSTEM
HYPOTHALAMUS – DIVISIONS & FUNCTIONS
DISTURBANCES IN ACID-BASE BALANCES
ABSORPTION OF IRON
GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS
PANCREATIC SECRETIONS
PRESSURE CURVES IN CVS
HEART SOUND
RENAL REGULATION OF ACID-BASE BALANCE
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF PROTEIN
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF FATS
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION OF CARBOHYDRATE
STRETCH REFLEX
INSULIN – METABOLIC ACTIONS
ELECTRO-ENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG)
ANTI-DIURETIC HORMONE (ADH) / VASOPRESSIN
PULMONARY COMPLIANCE
NEUROTRANSMITTERS – FUNCTIONS & MECHANISM OF ACTION IN CNS
SECOND MESSENGER
RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
ACTION POTENTIAL
NERVE CONDUCTION
NERVE FIBER – CLASSIFICATION
SPINAL REFLEX & PROPERTIES
NEPHRON
INTERACTION BETWEEN CO2 & O2 TRANSPORT
PRODUCTION & REGULATION OF BILE
CEREBELLUM – NEURONAL CIRCUIT & DISORDERS
SURFACTANT
NEOCORTEX – ORGANIZATION & FUNCTIONS
HYPOTHALAMUS – NEURONAL FUNCTIONS
VENTILATION-PERFUSION RATIO (V/Q RATIO)
MEASUREMENT OF RENAL BLOOD FLOW
GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE (GFR) & FACTORS AFFECTING
REGULATION OF RENAL BLOOD FLOW
GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE (GFR) – MEASUREMENT
REGULATION OF GFR
GALL BLADDER – FUNCTIONS
MECHANISM OF RENAL TRANSPORT OF SODIUM, GLUCOSE & UREA
PERISTALSIS
RESPIRATORY RESPONSE TO EXERCISES
DIGESTION IN STOMACH – MOTILITY & GASTRIC EMPTYING
MINERALOCORTICOIDS – FUNCTIONS & REGULATION
GLUCOCORTICOIDS – FUNCTIONS & REGULATION
CALCITROPIC HORMONES
MENSTRUAL CYCLE
LACTATION
OVARIAN HORMONES
NEUROENDOCRINE RESPONSE TO STRESS
GASTROINTESTINAL HORMONES
SYNTHESIS OF THYROID HORMONE
GASTROINTESTINAL MOTILITY
DIGESTION IN SMALL INTESTINE – MOTILITY, SECRETION & CONTROL
DIGESTION IN LARGE INTESTINE – MOTILITY & REFLEXES
THYROID HORMONE – METABOLISM, TRANSPORT & REGULATION.
THYROID HORMONE – FUNCTIONS
SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP
CARDIAC MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS
SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS – CHARACTERISTICS
MUSCLE SPINDLES
SENSORY RECEPTORS
FEATURES OF SENSORY RECEPTORS
GENERAL EXTERORECEPTORS
THERMO-REGULATORY MECHANISM
INVERSE STRETCH REFLEX
SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION & RELAXATION -MECHANISM
SKELETAL MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY – STRUCTURE & TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBERS
PROCESS OF SYNAPTIC INHIBITION
DEVELOPMENT OF POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL
EXCITATION-CONTRACTION COUPLING
CYANOSIS
CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING
RESPIRATORY REFLEXES
CHEMICAL REGULATION OF RESPIRATION.
NEURAL MECHANISM OF BREATHING REGULATION
HYPOXIA
ALTITUDE PHYSIOLOGY
PHYSIOLOGY OF DEEP SEA DIVING
DEAD SPACE
RESPIRATORY PRESSURE
BLOOD PRESSURE
MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE
NEURAL REGULATION OF CVS
CARDIOPULMONARY REFLEXES
CARDIAC OUTPUT
PRINCIPLES OF BLOOD FLOW
ERYTHROCYTES
CARDIAC CONDUCTION
COAGULATION SYSTEM
HEMOSTASIS
CARDIAC CYCLE
PLASMA PROTEINS
HORMONES INFLUENCING RENAL ACTIVITY
GROWTH HORMONE
SPINAL CORD INJURY
PAIN AND ANALGESIA
G-PROTEIN COUPLED RECEPTORS
STAGES OF SLEEP
UPPER MOTOR NEURON Vs. LOWER MOTOR NEURON PARALYSIS
REGULATION OF FEEDING BEHAVIOR
BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER
CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
SPEECH
GUSTATION
RESPIRATORY FAILURE
OLFACTION
TRANSPORT MAXIMUM
MEMORY
LEARNING
THALAMUS
SALIVA
HORMONAL CHANGES AT PUBERTY
SEMEN
REABSORPTION & SECRETION OF PROXIMAL TUBULE
RENAL TRANSPORT OF POTASSIUM, CALCIUM & UREA
RE-ABSORPTION & SECRETION IN DISTAL TUBULE
GASTRIC ACID SECRETION – MECHANISM & PHASES
REABSORPTION & SECRETION IN LOOP OF HENLE
GASTRIC ACID SECRETION – REGULATION & OUTPUT
CHEMICAL REGULATION OF CVS
REABSORPTION & SECRETION IN COLLECTING DUCTS
COMPOSITION OF ALVEOLAR AIR
PHYSIOLOGY OF PITUITARY GLAND
INSULIN – RECEPTORS AND REGULATION OF SECRETION
MOTOR CORTEX
REGULATION OF THIRST
REGULATION OF POSTURE
ASSOCIATION AREAS
CELLULAR ELEMENTS OF CNS
RETICULAR FORMATION
LUNG VOLUMES & CAPACITY
SYMPATHETIC Vs. PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
MOLECULAR MOTORS & MARKERS
CYTOSKELETON
COMPONENTS OF BODY FLUIDS
OSMOSIS
SMOOTH MUSCLE CONTRACTION – IMPORTANT FACTORS & FEATURES
INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS

Biochemistry
HMP Shunt
Glutathione
ETC
Gluconeogenesis
Urea Cycle
Purine Salvage Pathway
Vitamin A
Vitamin A Deficiency
FISH(Fluorescent in situ hybridization)
Glucokinase
Tay-Sachs disease
Maple Syrup Urine Disease
Cholesterol Biosynthesis
Malate Shuttle
Vitamin C
Collagen
Trace element:Iodine
Trace element : Iron
Trace element:Zinc
Trace element : Copper
Trace element : Fluorine
Trace element :Selenium
NIACIN
Proline
Histidine
Carnitine
Hartnup Ds
Niemann–Pick disease
Bile Pigment
Krebs Cycle
Ketone Bodies
Classification of Amino Acid
Antioxidant
Chemistry of Carbohydrates
glycolysis cycle
Tryptophan
Phenylketonuria
Nucleotides
Gout- Purine metabolism disorder
LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME
Severe combined immunodeficiency
STRUCTURE OF DNA
Different Types of DNA
Denaturation of DNA
Orotic aciduria
Regulation of gene expression
Antimetabolites
Albinism
properties of amino acids
Codons and genetic codes
INHIBITORS OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
COENZYMES
CLASSIFICATION OF ENZYMES
REGULATION OF ENZYME
ISOENZYMES
ENZYME MARKERS
Lipids
Fatty acids
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
Isomerism in fatty acids
TRIACYLGLYCEROL
Phopholipids
Sphingophospholipids
Gaucher’s disease
BIOMEMBRANES
De Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis
Regulation of Fatty Acid Synthesis
Oxidation of Fatty acids
Regulation of fatty acid synthesis
Different types of fatty acid oxidation
Metabolism of VLDL
Fatty liver
Hyperlipoproteinemia
Bile Acid Synthesis
Lipoprotein- structure
Hypolipoproteinemia
Regulation of cholesterol synthesis
Vitamin A
Vitamin A deficiency
Vitamin D
Vitamin D- Deficiency
Vitamin E & deficiency
Vitamin K & Deficiency
Vitamin B1 & Deficiency
Vitamin B2 & Deficiency
Vitamin B3
Vitamin B3 & Deficiency
Vitamin B6 & Deficiency
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)
Vitamin B12 & Deficiency
Bile Acid Synthesis
Lipoprotein- structure
Vitamin C Deficiency- Scurvy
Classification of Minerals
Structure of Heme
Biosynthesis of Heme
Metabolism of Bilirubin
Structure of Hemoglobin
Denaturation of Protein
Separation techniques of protein
Disease associated with collagen
Protein Folding
Ubiquitin
Prion Disease
Plasma Cell Disorder
Ehler’s- Danlos Syndrome
Alport’s Syndrome
Polysaccharides
Mucopolysaccharides (Glycosaminoglycan)
Mucopolysaccharidosis
Rapoport Leubering cycle

Microbiology
Streptococcus
Streptococcus Pneumonia
Streptococcus Pyogens: Morphology,Transmission, Antigenicity and Lysogeny
Streptococcus Viridans
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Replication & Transmission Of HIV
Diagnostic Techniques In HIV
AIDS Control Programmes
WHO clinical staging of HIV/AIDS for children with confirmed HIV infection
Prevention Methods In HIV
Treatment Modalities In HIV/AIDS Patients
HIV Involving Nervous System
Toxoplasma gondii: Toxoplasmosis
LUNGS IN HIV
AIDS defining Opportunistic infections and Neoplasms
Kidney In HIV
Eye, Endocrine system, Hematopoietic system, CVS and Dermatological system In HIV
Oral and GIT Manifestations Of HIV
Chlamydia
Diagnosis & treatment Of Chlamydia Infection
Vibrio cholerae
Vibrio cholerae Culture & Diagnosis
Vibrio Cholera & It’s Clinical Features
Vibrio Cholerae Virulency
Vibrio Cholera Transmission & Cholera Control
Vibrio Cholerae Management
Structure Of Immunoglobulin
Immunoglobulin A
Immunoglobulin M
Immunoglobulin E
Immunoglobulin G
E.coli:Structure and Virulency
STAPHYLOCOCCI
Staphylococcus aureus: Pathogenesis, Clinical Syndromes
Staphylococcus aureus: Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment
Corynebacterium Diphtheria
Mycobactreium Tuberculosis
Salmonella Typhi
Clostridium Perfringens
Clostridium Tetani
Clostridium Botulinum
Clostridium difficile
Herpes Simplex Virus
Prion
Polymerised Chain Reaction
Epstein Barr Virus
Hepatitis B Virus
Shigella
Mycobacterium leprae
Leprosy- Epidemolgy,Vaccination,NTLEP
Rabies Virus
Rabies :Transmission and Clinical features
Rabies :Diagnosis and Negri bodies
Rabies: Pre-exposure and Post-Exposre Prophylaxis
Lepra Reaction And Erythma Nodosum Leprosum
Leprosy- Diagnosis
Leprosy:WHO Classification ,WHO Disability grading
Leprosy Classification-Madrid and Ridley and Jopling Classification
Streptococcus Pyogens: Clinical manifestation, Diagnosis and Treatment
Streptococcus Pneumonia :Clinical Manifestations , Diagnosis and treatment
Chlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia psittaca
SYNTHESIS OF IMMUNOGLOBULINS
HUMAN IMMUNOGLOBULINS CLASSES
E. coli: Clinical manifestations
E. coli Diagnosis and Treatment
Staphylococcus aureus: Morphology,Culture and Biochemical reaction
Staphylococcus aureus: Virulence and Toxin
COAGULASE – ve STAPHYLOCOCCI
Corynebacterium Diphtheria: Clinical manifestation, Complications, Diagnosis and Treatment
Shigella : Clinical Findings, Pathogenesis, Lab Diagnosis and Treatment
Clostridium Perfringens: Clinical manifestation, Diagnosis and Treatment
ANTIGEN ANTIBODY REACTION AND PRECIPITATION REACTION
AGGLUTINATION
TYPE I HYPERSENSITIVITY
TYPE II HYPERSENSITIVITY
TYPE III HYPERSENSITIVITY
TYPE IV HYPERSENSITIVITY
INTERLEUKINS
Neisseria gonorrhoeae :Basics
Neisseria gonorrhoeae : Clinical manifestations
Neisseria gonorrhoeae :Diagnosis and Treatment
Clostridium tetani: Clinical manifestations
Clostridium tetani : Diagnosis, treatment and Prevention
Bacillus Anthrax
Bacillus Anthrax:Clinical manifestation, Diagnosis and treatment
Bacteriophage
Proteus bacilli
Bordetella pertussis
Bordetella pertussis: Clinical manifestations and diagnosis
Brucella
Brucellosis
Rickettsiae
Treponema Pallidum
Treponema Pallidum :Syphilis
Treponema Pallidum: Diagnosis and Treatment
Parvovirus
Pox Virus
Influenza virus
Influenza virus: Clinical manifestations, Complications, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention
Avian Influenza
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)
Rotavirus: Classification, Structure, composition and properties
Rotavirus: Pathogenesis, Clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnosis, and Treatment
Hepatitis A Virus
Hepatitis C Virus
Hepatitis E and Hepatitis D
Dengue Fever
Chikungunya
Candida
Candida: Clinical Manifestations
Candida: Diagnosis and Treatment
Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia
Histoplasma capsulatum
Entamoeba histolytica
Entamoeba Histolytica: Clinical Manifestations
Entamoeba Histolytica: Diagnosis and Treatment
Leishmania
Dry Heat Sterilization
Moist Heat Sterilization
Mucormycosis
Adenovirus
Aspergillosis
Nocardia
DERMATOPHYTES
Blastomycosis
Mumps Virus
Measles
Measles- Vaccination and WHO’s measles elimination strategy
Giardia lamblia
Giardiasis
Cryptococcus neoformans
Cryptococcosis
Neisseria Meningitidis
Campylobacter jejuni
Bacillus cereus
Toxoplasma gondii
Pulse Polio and Polio eradication
Polio Virus
Poliomyelitis
Plasmodium
Plasmodium: Clinical Features (Malaria)
Plasmodium: Diagnosis
Malaria: Treatment
Haemophilus influenzae
Bordetella pertussis: Control of whooping cough
Nipah virus
Sterilization Methods( Radiation,Chemical Agents and Sporicidal Agents)
Disinfectant
Hemolytic Streptococci- Group A, B, C, D and F
Actinomyces and Actinomycosis
H. aegyptius and H. ducreyi
Helicobacter pylori
Non-Venereal Treponematosis- Bejel, Yaws and Pinta
Transfer of genetic information
Acanthamoeba
Naegleria fowleri
Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei
Leptospira
Mycoplasma
Mycobacteria other than Tuberculosis-MOTTS/Atypical mycobacteria
Legionella
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Vibrio – V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, Vibrio Vulnificus, Vibrio Mimicus
Pasteurella multocida
Borrelia burgdorferi and Lyme disease
Borrelia and Relapsing Fever
Sporothrix schenckii
Coccidioides immitis
Cestodes(Tapeworms)
Varicella Zoster
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Coxsackievirus
Ebola Virus
Differences between Exotoxins and Endotoxins
K. pneumoniae, K. ozaenae and K.rhinoscleromatis
Yersinia pestis
Human PapillomaVirus (HPV)
Culture medium
Genetic Mechanism of Drug Resistance
Innate Immunity
Adaptive/Acquired Immunity
Lymphoreticular system

Pharmacology
Haloperidol
GLYCERYL TRINITRATE
Digoxin
Atropine
Octreotide
BROMOCRIPTINE
Halothane
Thiopentone
Propofol
Isoflurane
Sevoflurane
Fluoxetine
Clozapine
Lithium
Heparin
Pilocarpine
Sodium Cromoglycate
Leukotriene Antagonist
Acyclovir
Nitric Oxide
Linezolid
zidovudine
Cisplatin
Drugs causing gynaecomastia
Trastuzumab (Herceptin)
PYRAZINAMIDE
Rifampicin
Ethambutol
Aminoglycoside
Anti tubercular treatment regimen
Metronidazole
Ketoconazole
CHLORAMPHENICOL
AZITHROMYCIN
Sulphonamide
COTRIMOXAZOLE
DOXYCYCLIN
TETRACYCLIN
Dapsone
PENICILLIN
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIMICROBIALS
Amoxicillin
Cephalosporin
AChE inhibitors
OP Poisoning
Glaucoma Pharmacological Management
Epinephrine
Beta adrenergic receptor antagonists or beta-blockers
Insulin
DOPAMINE
ORDER OF KINETICS
First pass metabolism
Cholinergic receptor
Alpha adrenergic receptor
Enzyme inhibition (competitive, non-competitive and uncompetitive)
Glucocorticoids
Mineralocorticoids
Aspirin
K+sparing diuretic
Loop Diuretics
Paracetamol
PHENYTOIN
Benzodiazipines
Anti-Parkinsonism Drugs
Histamine & Histaminic receptors
Monoclonal Antibody
Valproic acid (Sodium Valproate)
Anti-thyroid Drugs
Cyclosporin
TICLOPIDINE
INFLIXIMAB
DAPAGLIFLOZIN
SYMPATHETIC RECEPTORS
DOSE RESPONSE CURVE
THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING
ANTI-CHOLINERGIC DRUGS
DRUG DISTRIBUTION
NEWER ANTI-DIABETIC DRUGS
ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC DRUGS

Forensic Medicine
Criminal Procedure Codes
Lead poisoning
Postmortem Caloricity
IPC
INQUEST
CONSENT
The Transplantation of Human Organs Act – 1994
PROFESSIONAL NEGLIGENCE (MALPRAXIS)
FUNCTIONS OF INDIAN AND STATE MEDICAL COUNCILS
Consumer Protection Act, (CPA/COPRA) – 1986
EUTHANASIA
EXHUMATION
CORPUS DELICTI
Drowning-Autopsy findings
Drowning
Drowning- Test
Types of firearm
Bullet and Gunpowder
Fingerprint
Firearm: Identification of Weapon
Firearm wounds
Firearm:Tests, Phenomenons and Suicide VS Homicide
Laceration
Summon
Late Postmortem changes – Adipocere
Late Postmortem changes – Putrefaction
Late Postmortem changes – Mummification
Organophosphates Poisoning
Mercury poisoning
Sex Determination-Nuclear Sexing
Sex Determination by Skeleton
Age Determination- Teeth
Determination of Age
AGE IDENTIFICATION FROM BONES
Age determination of Fetus
Embalming
Incised wounds
Abrasion
Contusion/Bruise-Types
Contusion/Bruise-Factors and Color changes
Medical Evidence
Witnesses and Recording Of Evidence
Rigor mortis
Postmortem changes -Immediate
Postmortem changes – Early
Motor Vehicle injuries
Explosion injury
Stab wound
Regional Injuries
Hanging- Types, Causes of Death, Postmortem Findings and Medicolegal Importance
Pedestrian Injury
Injuries: Medicolegal Aspects
Physical Torture
Inquest
PROFESSIONAL MISCONDUCT (INFAMOUS CONDUCT)
Medical negligence
Professional secrecy and Privileged communication
Race Determination
Superimposition and Tattoo Mark
Somatic ,molecular and Sudden Death.

Pathology
Pulmonary Tuberculosis
Genital Tuberculosis
Genitourinary Tuberculosis
Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis
Skeletal Tuberculosis
Tuberculous Meningitis
Tuberculosis Of Skin
Diagnostic Techniques In Tuberculosis
Typhoid
TP53
Apoptosis
Sickle Cell Anemia
Langerhan’c cell Histiocytosis
Transforming growth factor Beta
ANCA(Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody)
Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor(G-CSF)
Hemophilia
Aplastic Anemia
Thalassemia
Paraneoplastic Syndrome
Sebaceous cyst
Pulmonary Embolism
Primary hyperaldosteronism
Wilson’s disease
Systemic Lupus Erythematous
CYSTIC FIBROSIS
Cellular adaptation
Reversible cell injury
Irreversible cell injury
Necrosis
Necroptosis
Autophagy
Intracellular accumulations
Pathological clacification
Cellular ageing
ACUTE INFLAMMATION- Vascular events

ENT
CSF Rhinorrhoea
Malignant Otitis Externa (ENT)
Pinna / Auricle
Otosclerosis / Otospongiosis
Septoplasty
Atrophic rhinitis / Ozaena
Vasomotor Rhinitis
Acoustic Neuroma / Vestibular Schwannoma / Neurilemmoma / 8th Nerve tumor
Rhinoscleroma
Choanal atresia
Frenzel Glasses
Cauliflower Ear
Menier’s Disease
Pinna
External Auditory Canal
Auditory Ossicles
Tympanoplasty
Malignant Otitis Externa
BERA
Acoustic reflex
Complications of Otits Media
Lateral Sinus Thrombophlebitis
Atrophic Rhinitis
Allergic Rhinitis
Acute Sinusitis
Complications of Sinusitis
Fungal Sinusits
Acute Tonsilitis
Tonsillectomy
Quinsy
Adenoid
Ludwig’s Angina
Epistaxis
Tracheostomy
Laryngo-tracheo-bronchial foreign bodies
CSF Rhinorrhea
Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma
Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Acute Epigottitis
Acute Layngo-tracheo-bronchitis
Fracture of Hyoid Bone
Fracture of Temporal bone
Fracture of the facial bones-Nose,Maxilla,Mandible,Zygomatic
Glomus Jugulare
Layngomalacia
Carcinoma of Tongue
Carcinoma of Larynx
Carcinoma of Oral Cavity
Maxillary Carcinoma
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Retropharyngeal and Parapharyngeal Abscess
Laryngeal Paralysis
Laryngeal Nerve Supply
Tubercular Laryngitis
Neonatal Airway
Laryngeal involvement in miscellaneous causes.
Subglottic Stenosis
Recurrent Laryngeal Papillomatosis
Benign Lesions of Larynx
Voice Disorders
Ethmoidal Polyp
Antrochoanal Polyp
Thyroplasty
Laryngocele
Rhinosleroma
Rhinosporidiosis
FESS
Physiology of hearing (ENT)
Special Hearing Tests
Auditory Pathway

Ophthalmology
Retinitis Pigmentosa
KERATOCONUS
Blow out Fracture
Sympathetic ophthalmitis
OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM
CRVO & CRAO
REFSUM DISEASE
GLAUCOMA
EALES DISEASE
THYROID OPTHALMOPATHY
VITREOUS HEMORRHAGE
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY
CONTACT LENSES
APHAKIA
ASTIGMATISM
MYOPIA
ANATOMY OF CORNEA
HISTOLOGY OF CORNEA
ANATOMY OF SCLERA
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Intususseption
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urolithiasis
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Portal hypertensive gastropathy

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DEVELOPMENTAL MILESTONES
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COARCTATION OF AORTA
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PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS
Reye’s syndrome
CEREBRAL PALSY
EBSTEIN’S ANOMALY

Obstetrics
Placenta accreta
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Fetal circulation
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ROLE OF USG IN OBSTETRICS
Methods of Obstetrical Examination
Diagnosis In Pregnancy
Physiological Changes During Pregnancy
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PLACENTA
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version
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MULTIPLE PREGNANCY-FEATURES AN DIAGNOSIS
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Stages of Normal Labour
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Moist Heat Sterilization

Moist Heat Sterilization


Mechanism of Action

  • Denaturation and coagulation of proteins

Temperature below 100oC:

  • For pasteurization of milk
  • Holder method
  • 65oC for 30 min
  • Flash Process
  • 72oC for 15 sec 
  • Pasteurization kills nearly 90% of the bacteria in milk 
  • Including the more heat resistant – Tubercle bacilli 
  • It does not kill bacterial spores. 
  • It does not kill the thermoduric bacteria. 
  • Also used for :
  • Vaccines of nonsporing bacteria
  • Serum or body fluids containing coagulable proteins.

Methylene blue Reduction test:

  • Indirect test 
  • Detection of microorganism in milk.
  • Prior to the process of pasterurization

Pasteurization of milk is determined by:

  1. Phosphatase test
  2. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme naturally present in all raw milk
  3. Used as an indicator of proper milk pasteurization.
  4. Complete pasteurization will inactivate the enzyme .
  5. Coliform count
  6. Standard plate count

Temperature at 100oC (Boiling):

  • Rolling boil
  • boiling for 5-10 minutes
  • Kill bacteria, but not spores or viruses

Steam at Atmospheric Pressure 1000C:

  • Koch or Arnold steamer is usually used the container
  • Culture media are simultaneously sterilized.
  • A single exposure of 20 min usually ensures sterilization
  • Tyndallization
  • An exposure of 100oC for 20 minutes
  • For three successive days 

Steam under pressure /Autoclave/steam sterilizer (>100oC)

  • Most effective sterilizing agent for
  • dressing
  • instruments
  • laboratory wares
  • media and pharmaceutical products
  • aqueous solutions.
  • Not for sharp instruments
  • Done at:
  • Temperature of 121oC
  • keeping chamber pressure of 15lb per square inch
  • For 15 min.
  • 126o
  • 20lbs psi
  • for 10 min
  • on 133o
  • 30 lbs psi
  • for 3 min.
  • Biological indicators
  • Spores of Bacillus stereothermophilus (Geobacillus stearothermophilus) are used.
  • Spores of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilis are also used.
Exam Question
 

Temperature below 100oC:

  • For pasteurization of milk
  • Holder method
  • 65oC for 30 min
  • Flash Process
  • 72oC for 15 sec 
  • Pasteurization kills nearly 90% of the bacteria in milk 
  • Including the more heat resistant – Tubercle bacilli 
  • It does not kill bacterial spores. 
  • It does not kill the thermoduric bacteria. 
  • Pasteurization of milk is determined by:
  1. Phosphatase test
  2. Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme naturally present in all raw milk
  3. Used as an indicator of proper milk pasteurization.
  4.  Complete pasteurization will inactivate the enzyme .
  5. Coliform count
  6. Standard plate count

Steam under pressure /Autoclave/steam sterilizer (>100oC)

  • Most effective sterilizing agent for
  • dressing
  • instruments
  • laboratory wares
  • media and pharmaceutical products
  • aqueous solutions.
  • Not for sharp instruments
  • Done at:
  •  Temperature of 121oC
  • keeping chamber pressure of 15lb per square inch
  • For 15 min.
  • 126o
  • 20lbs psi
  • for 10 min
  • on 133o
  • 30 lbs psi
  • for 3 min.
  • Biological indicators
  • Spores of Bacillus stereothermophilus (Geobacillus stearothermophilus) are used.
  • Spores of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilis are also used.
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Moist Heat Sterilization

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease


DEFINITION:

  • Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a slowly progressive disease of the brain that is characterized by impairment of memory and eventually by disturbances in reasoning, planning, language, and perception. 
  • Alzheimer’s disease is Common in 5th and 6th decade
  • Alzheimer’s disease is Atrophied gyri widened sulci
  • Cortical atrophy of temporoparietal cortex

 ETIOLOGY:

  • It is likely that the causes include genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors.
  •  Some drug therapies propose that AD is caused by reduced synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
  • Other cholinergic effects have also been proposed, for example, initiation of large-scale aggregation of amyloid leading to generalized neuroinflammation.
  • Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by a build-up of proteins (Apo E gene) in the brain.
  • Trisomy 21 is associated with alzheimer’s dementia
  • Though this cannot be measured in a living person, extensive autopsy studies have revealed this phenomenon.
  • The build-up manifests in two ways:
  • Plaques– deposits of the protein beta-amyloid that accumulate in the spaces between nerve cells   
  • Tangles – deposits of the protein tau that accumulate inside of nerve cells
  • Both amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are clearly visible by microscopy in brains of those afflicted by AD.
  • Plaques are dense, mostly insoluble deposits of amyloid – beta peptides and cellular material outside and around neurons.
  • Senile neural plaques correlates (increases) with age
  • Tangles (neurofibrillary tangles) are aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau which has become hyperphosphorylated and accumulate inside the cells themselves & are associated with severe dementia
  • Lateral geniculate body is resistant to neurofibrillary tangles.

SYMPTOMS:

Early Stage

  • This is considered as a mild/early stage and the duration period is 2-4 years.
  • Frequent recent memory loss, particularly of recent conversations and events.
  • Repeated questions, some problems expressing and understanding language.
  • Writing and using objects become difficult and depression and apathy can occur.
  • Drastic personality changes may accompany functional decline.
  • Need reminders for daily activities and difficulties with sequencing impact driving early in this stage.

 Second stage

  • This is considered as a middle/moderate stage and the duration is 2-10 years.
  • Can no longer cover up problems. 
  • Pervasive and persistent memory loss impacts life across settings.
  • Dementia of Alzheimer’s type is associated with  Depressive symptoms, Delusions ,Apraxia and aphasia
  • Rambling speech, unusual reasoning, confusion about current events, time, and place. 
  • Potential to become lost in familiar settings, sleep disturbances, and mood or behavioral symptoms accelerate.
  • Nearly 80% of patients exhibit emotional and behavioral problems which are aggravated by stress and change.
  • Slowness, rigidity, tremors, and gait problems impact mobility and coordination. 
  • Need structure, reminders, and assistance with activities of daily living.

Moderate stage

  • Increased memory loss and confusion.
  • Problems recognizing family and friends.
  • Inability to learn new things.
  • Difficulty carrying out tasks that involve multiple steps (such as getting dressed).
  • Problems coping with new situations.
  • Delusions and paranoia.
  • Impulsive behavior.
  • In moderate AD, damage occurs in areas of the brain that control language, reasoning, sensory processing, and conscious thought

 Last stage

  • This is considered as the severe stage and the duration is 1-3 years.
  • Confused about past and present. 
  • Loss of recognition of familiar people and places
  • Generally incapacitated with severe to total loss of verbal skills.
  • Unable to care for self.  
  • Falls possible and immobility likely.
  • Problems with swallowing, incontinence, and illness.
  • Extreme problems with mood, behavioral problems, hallucinations, and delirium.
  • Patients need total support and care, and often die from infections or pneumonia

DIAGNOSIS 

  • Patient history, collateral history from relatives, and clinical observations
  • Characteristic neurological and neuropsychological features and the absence of alternative conditions.
  • Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and with single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to help exclude other cerebral pathology or subtypes of dementia.
  • The fixative used in histopathology 10% buffered neutral formalin
  • The diagnosis can be confirmed with very high accuracy post-mortem when brain material is available and can be examined histologically.

 TREATMENT:

  • Cholinesterase inhibitors: donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine.
  • These agents are orally active, have adequate penetration into the central nervous system.
Exam Question
 
  • In Alzheimer’s disease Cortical atrophy of temporoparietal cortex is involved.
  • Recent memory loss is feature of Alzheimer’s disease
  • Degenerated neurofilaments seen in patients with Alzheimer’s disease are Neurofibrillary tangles
  • Neurofibrillary tangles, Senile (neurotic) plaques & Amyloid angiopathy  are  feature of Alzheimer’s disease
  • Trisomy 21 is associated with alzheimer’s dementia
  • The area of the brain resistant to Neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer’s disease is Lateral geniculate body
  • Galantamine, Rivastigmine & Donepezil are  used for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease
  • Protein involved in Alzheimer’s disease is Apo E gene
  • Biochemical etiology of Alzheimer’s disease relates it to Acetylcholine
  • Dementia of Alzheimer’s type is associated with  Depressive symptoms, Delusions, Apraxia and aphasia
  • Alzheimer’s disease is Common in 5th and 6th decade
  • Alzheimer’s disease is Atrophied gyri widened sulci
  • In Alzheimer’s disease number of senile neural plaques correlates (increases) with age
  • In Alzheimer’s disease there is presence of tau protein suggest neurodegeneration
  • In Alzheimer’s disease number of neurofibrillary tangles is associated with the severity of dementia
  • Area of brain resistant to NFTs in Alzheimer’s disease Lateral geniculate body
  • Biochemical etiology of Alzheimer’s disease relates to acetylcholine
  • The fixative used in histopathology 10% buffered neutral formalin
  •  Donepezil is a cerebroactive drug. It is used in Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Don’t Forget to Solve all the previous Year Question asked on Alzheimer’s Disease

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