Lower extremity hyporeflexia
Ans. A. Muscle hypertonicity
Hydrocephalus is any increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume. In infancy and early childhood, the cause is usually impaired CSF outflow due to congenital abnormalities like Type II Arnold-Chiari malformations, hereditary aqueductal stenosis, and prenatal infections (e.g. toxoplasmosis). Hydrocephalus in early infancy typically presents with macrocephaly (defined as head circumference greater than two standard deviations above the mean for gender and age), irritability, poor feeding, muscle hypertonicity and hyperreflexia.Hypertonicity and hyperreflexia result from upper motor neuron damage caused by stretching of the periventricular pyramidal tracts.