Paroxysmal non-epileptic events
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
Childhood absence epilepsy
Landau kleffner syndrome
Ans. C. Childhood absence epilepsy
Brief abrupt staring spells with impaired consciousness ( without loss of body tone ) are typically seen in childhood absence epilepsy. It usually occurs in children between 4 and 10 years of age who are usually developmentally normal. The classic EEG pattern seen here is ‘generalized 3-hertz spike-wave discharges. Absence seizures and associated EEG findings are easily provoked by hyperventilation. Ethosuximide and lamotrigine are first-line agents to treat followed by valproate Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy occurs in teenagers typically presenting with myoclonic jerks on awakening involving both arms, sometimes subtle manifestations including finger twitches.